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Fabrication and characterization of P-side up thin film AlGaInP LEDs with high thermal dissipation substrate
|關鍵字:||磷化鋁銦鎵;AlGaInP;發光二極體;二次翻轉;圓點狀歐姆接觸層;表面粗化 ;lightemitting diode;twice transferring;dot-patterned structure;texturization||出版社:||精密工程學系所||引用:|| R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G.H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,”IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 47,pp. 1492-1498, 2000.  E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White‐light‐emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,”Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 3076-3080, 2010.  D. A. Vanderwater, I. H. Tan, G. E. Hofler, D. C. DeFevere, and F. A. Kish, “High-brightness AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” IEEE Invited paper., vol. 85, pp. 1752-1764, 1997.  G.B. Stringfellow, “High brightness light emitting diode”, Academic Press Inc. Boston, pp. 149-219, 1997.  N. F. GARDNER ET AL.“1.4times efficiency improvement in transparent Substrate(AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light emitting diodes with thin active regions,” Appl Phys Lett. vol. 74, pp. 2230-2234, 1999.  K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High brightness AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” IEEE.,vol. 8, pp. 321-332, 2002.  陳明宏，添加Sb對Sn-Ag無鉛銲料銲點冶金性質與機械性質之研究，國立成功大學機械工程系博士論文，2003。  鐘易亨，磷化鋁鎵銦發光二極體外部量子效率的改善，國立成功大學微電子所碩士論文，2002。  A. R. FrankLin and R. Newman, “Shaped electroluminescent GaAs diodes,”Appl. Phys. Lett.,vol. 35, pp. 1135-1155, 1964.  M. R. Krames et al. “High power truncated inverted ptramid AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency ,”Appl. Phys. Lett.vol. 75, pp. 2365-2367,1999.  R.H. Horng, C.E. Lee, C.Y. Kung, S.H. Huang, and D.S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, L576-L578, 2004.  R.H. Horng, D.S. Wuu, C.H. Seieh, W.C. Peng, M.F. Huang, S.J. Tsal, and J.S. Liu,“ Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers”, J. Electron. Mater., vol. 30, pp. 907-910, 2001.  R.H. Horng, S.H. Huang, D.S. Wuu, and Y.Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 2510-2514, 2004.  L. J. Yan,j. k.Sheu, W. C. Wen, T.F. Liao, M. J. Tsai, and C.S. Chang,“ Improved Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diode by Applying a Periode Texture on the surface,”IEEE Photo. Technol. Lett, vol. 20, No. 20, pp. 1724-1726, 2008.  Y. J. Lee, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang. T. C. Husu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee,“Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,”Material Science and Engineering B, vol. 138, pp. 157-160, 2007.  D. V. Morgan, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, S. Barnes, and T. Bos, “Electrical and optical properties of high performance MOCVD grown (AlxGa1−x)yIn1−yP visible light-emitting diodes,”Electron. Lett.,vol. 29,pp. 1991-1992, 1993.  R. Wirth, S. Illek, C. Karnutsch, I. Pietzonka, A. Ploessl, P. Stauss, W. Stein, W. Wegleiter, R. Windisch, H. Zull, and K. Streube, “Recent progress of AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes,”Proc. SPIE, vol. 4996, no. 1, 2003.  R.H. Horng, S.H. Huang, D.S. Wuu, and C.Y. Chiu,“AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,”Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 4011-4013, 2003.  S.W. Chiou, C.P. Lee, C.K. Huang, and C.W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, pp. 2052-2054, 2000.  N. R. Taskar, R. N. Bhargava, J. Barone, V. Chhabra, V. Chabra, D. Dorman, A. Ekimov, S. Herko, and B. Kulkarni, “Quantum-confined-atom-based nanophosphors for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE,vol. 5187, pp. 133-141, 2004.||摘要:||
本論文製備了四種LED元件結構，並且探討其光電特性，分別為：製作整面型歐姆接觸層於n-side與p-side up LEDs、製作具局部圓點陣列歐姆接觸層於p-side LED、以及加入表面粗化製程於此具局部圓點陣列歐姆接觸層於p-side LED中。當操作電流為350mA時，量測上述四種元件的電壓分別為2.2V、2.03V、2.3V以及2.34V。在-25V操作電壓下，四種元件的漏電均小於-1μA之標準。此外，上述四種元件的光輸出功率分別為119mW、50mW、114mW以及245mW。
In this research, a new fabrication technique for AlGaInP LEDs application to solve the problems of low thermal dissipation and visible light absorption in GaAs substrate has been developed. At present, the epilayer structure of AlGaInP LED was usually transferred from GaAs to Si substrate by wafer bonding. However, through the transferring process as mentioned above, the reflectivity of metal mirror would be reduced and the p-GaP layer was hidden between the substrate and mirror layer. To make the p-GaP layer be the useful current spreading and window layer, the LED structure in this study was transferred to an electroplated copper substrate with high thermal conductivity by the twice wafer bonding process. To decrease the light absorption in the n-GaAs Ohmic contact layer, partial area of the n-GaAs layer was fabricated to the dot array with a diameter of 6 μm. According to the evaluation, the area proportion of dot-array n-GaAs within the planar n-GaAs was 2.7%. The metal mirror process was performed by evaporating the Ag material with high reflectivity of 99%. Additionally, the roughening process was carried out to form the nano-pillars on the GaP surface by dry etching. With the combination of metal mirror and surface roughening techniques, the light extraction of LEDs can be further improved.
Except for the n-side and p-side up LEDs both with entire ohmic contact layers, the p-side LED with dot-array ohmic contact layer was also fabricated. From the measurements of optoelectronic performance, the forward voltages (@ 350 mA) of ohmic contact layers in these three LEDs were measured to be 2.2, 2.03 and 2.3 V, respectively. To further improve the optoelectronic performance of AlGaInP LED, the roughening process was performed in the LED dot-array ohmic contact layer, and the forward voltage (@ 350 mA) was 2.34 V. Under an operation voltage of -25 V, the leakage current of all devices were less than -1 μA. Furthermore, the output powers of these four LEDs were measured to be 119, 50, 114 and 245 mW, respectively.
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