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dc.contributor.authorTong, Chi-Jiaen_US
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dc.description.abstract在本論文中發展出一套可應用於量測極小尺度薄膜機械行為(如應力-應變曲線、能量損耗與疲勞行為等)之高真空電容值量測系統。利用可提供均勻平面應力之槳型結構試件承載極小尺度之金屬薄膜使系統可有效且精準的量測試件整體所產生之機械行為。論文內容包含研究動機、試件設計與製程與系統架設與校正,並在最後兩章中對於銅與鋁薄膜的量測結果進行討論並對此系統之未來展望提出些許建議。 銅與鋁金屬薄膜目前皆廣泛的應用於半導體製程,不論是積體電路的內部連接導線或是微機電系統的結構皆可常常發現其蹤跡。然而,在此之前已經有許多的專家學者對於其機械性質進行深入的研究與討論,但是整體而言,其研究成果大部分還是著重於靜態機械性質以及較大尺度的範圍。有鑑於此,本論文的研究目標即是針對銅與鋁薄膜在高真空環境中所展現之動態行為進行深入的研究。實驗中利用強迫共振的方式將槳型試件逐一進行自由衰減之試驗,並藉由比較計算槳型試件具金屬薄膜與未具金屬薄膜的量測結果即可得知極小尺度銅與鋁薄膜在震盪時所產生的能量損耗,搭配不同的製程參數更可有效了解薄膜能量損耗之機制。 本研究的實驗結果包含了空氣阻尼對於可動元件的影響、槳型懸臂樑厚度與共振頻率之關係、勁度與質量對於共振頻率之影響以及尺度效應對於金屬薄膜內耗之影響。就300奈米以下的銅薄膜而言,薄膜內耗隨著薄膜厚度的增加而遞增,但是鋁薄膜卻展現完全相反的趨勢,300奈米以下的鋁薄膜其內耗趨勢明顯的隨著厚度的增加而減少。另外,論文中亦針對退火後之銅薄膜進行初步內耗的量測,其結果顯示當退火處理導致薄膜內部晶粒成長時薄膜的內耗會隨之下降。綜合以上結果,可以得知薄膜內耗與薄膜內部微結構有著顯著的關係。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractIn this dissertation, the design, construction and use of a novel capacitance measurement system is described. The system can be used to measure the mechanical properties (such as stress – strain curve, energy loss, and fatigue behavior) of ultra thin metal films. In order to measure the metal film samples on the very small scale, a paddle like silicon test specimen has been designed. It is used to carry a metal film on top because a metal film can’t support itself in very small dimension. The dissertation includes the motivation, sample design and fabrication, system design, setup and calibration. In the final two chapters it discusses measurement results of energy loss in Cu and Al thin films and suggestions for future work. Aluminum and copper thin films are widely used in the semiconductor industry. They are used either in the electronic interconnections or MEMS structures. There have been many previous studies of their mechanical properties, but they have usually focused on the quasistatic properties or dynamic properties in larger scale. A major goal of this dissertation is to experimentally investigate the dynamic properties of Al and Cu thin films at room temperature under high vacuum conditions. We measured energy loss through decay of oscillation amplitude of a vibrating structure following resonant excitation. We closely examine the film thickness and grain size with respect to the dynamic properties of the films. The measurement results in this dissertation include gas damping effect on sample decay, resonance frequency changes of various thicknesses paddle samples, stiffness and mass influence on resonance frequencies, and the thickness dependence of internal friction in Cu and Al films. In these results, we found that even at high vacuum the environmental pressure makes a significant contribution to the sample decay rate which changes linearly with pressure. Resonance frequencies of paddle samples have been obtained and the values were compared with fundamental theory calculation and Finite Element Method simulation. We also determine the internal friction of the thin and ultra thin metal films. The internal friction of the thin and ultra thin metal films depend strongly on the film thickness but present entirely different trends in Cu and Al films.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘要 i Abstract iii Table of Contents v List of Tables x List of Figures xi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Background 1 1.2. Goal of the study 3 1.2.1. Role of thin metal films 3 1.2.2. Mechanical effect of thin metal films 4 1.2.3. Goal of this study 5 1.3. Outline of the dissertation 6 Chapter 2 Literature Review of Energy Loss in Thin Metal Films 8 2.1. Previous test methods for studies of energy loss in thin metal films 8 2.1.1. Quasi-static tests 9 2.1.2. Sub-resonant experiments 11 2.1.3. Resonant experiments 14 2.1.4. Wave-propagation experiments 16 2.2. Energy loss mechanisms 19 2.3. Previous energy loss results and mechanisms identified 23 2.4. Summary 28 Chapter 3 Sample Design and Fabrication 30 3.1. The Sample and its measurement 30 3.2. Geometric design 33 3.2.1. Design of a uniform stress beam 33 3.2.2. The Paddle 35 3.2.3. Simulation of the deflection and stress distribution on the surface of a deflected paddle and beam 38 3.2.4. Mask design and layout 39 3.3. Sample fabrication 42 3.4. Fabrication results and fabrication yield 52 Chapter 4 System 61 4.1. System design 62 4.1.1. Existing system 62 4.1.2. Design of cantilever capacitor 64 4.1.3. Measurement of paddle capacitance 70 4.1.4. Electrostatic force drive 72 4.1.5. High vacuum system design 79 4.2. System Operation 81 4.2.1. Resonance operation 81 4.2.2. Free decay operation 86 Chapter 5 Experimental Procedure 90 5.1. Setting up the apparatus 90 5.2. Mounting the sample 92 5.3. Obtaining a working vacuum 95 5.4. Measuring the capacitance 98 5.5. Frequency control of the deflection voltage and data acquisition 100 5.6. Resonance 104 5.7. Free Decay 105 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion 111 6.1. Test results of Si paddle samples 111 6.1.1. Resonance experiment results 111 6.1.2. Free decay results 116 6.1.3. Energy loss analysis of bare Si 120 6.2. Test results of Cu and Si composite 121 6.2.1. Resonance experiment results 122 6.2.2. Free decay results 130 6.2.3. Energy loss analysis of pure Cu films 134 6.3. Test results of Al and Si composite 139 6.3.1. Resonance experiment results 139 6.3.2. Free decay results 147 6.3.3. Energy loss analysis of pure Al films 150 6.4. Preliminary test results of Si and Cu composite after annealing 155 6.4.1. Resonance experiment results 156 6.4.2. Free decay results 158 6.4.3. Energy loss analysis of pure Cu films with annealing 158 6.5. Test results of Si and Al composite after annealing 159 6.5.1. Resonance experiment results 160 6.5.2. Free decay results 163 6.5.3. Energy loss analysis of pure Al films with annealing 165 Chapter 7 Energy Loss Conclusions and Future Work 167 7.1. Energy loss conclusions 167 7.2. Future work 169 7.2.1. Annealing 169 7.2.2. Second peaks 170 7.2.3. Temperature dependence of internal friction 170 7.2.4. Fatigue 171 7.2.5. Gas damping 171 References 174 Appendix A1 System Calculations 182 A1.1. Mathematical calculation of system performance 182 A1.2. Electrostatic force calculation for bent beam 183 A1.3. Tapered beam stiffness 185 A1.4. Force including residual stress 189 A1.5. Paddle position vs. deflection voltage; capacitance vs. deflection voltage 191 A1.6. Vibration frequency of paddle 193 Appendix A2 Calibration of the Test System 197 A2.1. Reference capacitor 197 A2.2. Paddle capacitor 199 A2.3. Lock-in amplifier 204 Appendix A3 Others Operating Modes 210 A3.1. DC Operation 210 A3.2. Fast Transient Operation 212 A3.3. Fatigue operation 212 Appendix A4 Weight Factor Calculation 215 Appendix A5 Overall Dimensions of Capacitance Measurement 216zh_TW
dc.subjectEnergy lossen_US
dc.subjectThin Metal Filmsen_US
dc.titleStudy of Energy Loss in Thin Metal Filmsen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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