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標題: Evaluating Tank Model Parameters Based on Geographic Factors
作者: 陳榮松
關鍵字: 應用研究;土木水利工程類
In the applications of hydrologic models, the four-layered tank model proposed bySugawara is considered a useful model in rainfall-runoff simulations and verificationsbecause of its simplified model frame, reasonable function in runoff response and ability toprovide good simulation results. Many model parameters provide a good result inrainfall-runoff analysis; however, the parameters are too many to determinate. In the past,trial and error method was used to determinate parameters, but this method is quite difficultand will expend much time. Therefore, many different automated strategies were developedfor parameters calibration. The shortcoming of those methods is hard to choose the objectivefunction that is very important and sensitiveness. Although various calibration strategies thatutilize multiple objectives function have been developed recently, but they made conflictbetween the two or more objective functions. This study adopts two pieces of tank model toconsider the surface runoff and infiltration. The upper tank expresses the surface runoff andits orifice coefficient could be derived from kinematic wave and flood recession curvetheories. The infiltration could obtain from Philip』s equation. Then the orifice coefficient oflower tank could be derived from kinematic wave model and Darcy』s law. The study is notonly reducing the difficult of determining parameters, but also combining geomorphologicconditions, which can be responded the influence of flood discharge by different land use.The result of the research will be applied to a reclaimed slope farm and the practicabilityand correctness of result would be evaluated by rainfall-runoff curve simulations. This willbe a useful tool for drainage plan to master the increasing flood capacity after hill-slopereclamation.

菅原氏(1972)所倡議之水筒模式,由於易於使用且模擬效果良好,因此廣泛為各界所採用。然該模式所需檢定的參數眾多,因此參數最佳值之決定一直是諸多學者的研究目標。傳統參數之決定乃採用試誤法,但由於此項工作艱鉅且耗時,即使是有經驗的工程師亦不易決定參數,因此許多學者便利用各種參數優選法發展自動化檢定策略,依適當的簡化和假設決定水筒模式最佳化參數值。由文獻中可發現各種自動化檢定策略依目標函數的不同便產生不同的參數組合,因此目標函數的選擇極為重要且敏感,雖然近年來的檢定策略可同時滿足多個目標函數,但往往造成許多相衝突的目標,改善其中某一目標常會使目標結果變差。有鑑於此,本計畫以兩段式水筒模式為水文模式架構,考慮第一層水筒之側流孔與運動波模式皆以地表逕流為分析對象,利用運動波模式配合退水曲線理論推導出第一段水筒之孔口參數,垂直入滲量則以Philip 公式估算;第二段水筒之側流孔口參數則以運動波模式結合達西公式推定。本研究不僅大幅減少參數決定上之困難性,且參數推求結合現場地文條件,可反應不同土地利用情形對逕流量的影響,突破傳統水筒模式參數無法描述地表情形及土壤特性的缺點。計畫中並實際應用於開發坡地之洪水模擬上,除驗證本模式之實用與正確性外,並可掌握山坡地開發前後的水文增加量,以達成在資料有限的情況下便能確切瞭解洪流的增加量,訂定合理的排水規劃。
其他識別: NSC93-2211-E005-014
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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