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標題: 整合被動式動態步行與倒立擺模型之仿人機器人步行模式生成
Passive Dynamic Walking and Inverted Pendulum-Based Walking Pattern Generation for Humanoid Robots
作者: 林麗章
關鍵字: 電子電機工程類;應用研究;Bipedal walking pattern generation;passive dynamic walking;two-link inverted pendulum model;online pattern compensation;ZMP;inverse kinematics
人類平地直線行走時,遊動腳於踏地換腳時,大腿與小腿會幾乎成筆直形態,具有節省能量消耗的特性。然該形態因屬一種奇異狀態,無法計算Jacobian 矩陣的逆矩陣,因此一般皆將踏地換腳變為支撐腳時的形態規劃為微蹲的狀態,再以倒立擺模式規劃質心的前進軌跡,造成比較不像人類的自然行走模式本計畫為了獲得較像人類的自然行走模式,遊動腳的足部軌跡擬採用被動式動態步行(PDW)時的步態進行規劃。踏地換腳後之單支撐腳,則擬嘗試以筆值形態的倒立擺模式進行髖部軌跡規劃,並以underactuated 的方式推導支撐腳踝關節和遊動腳髖關節所需的轉動角度,可避免使用Jacobian 逆矩陣,以獲得較省能的自然行走模式。因使用簡化雙連桿倒立擺模式與五質點被動式動態步行的方式,生成的省能步行模式,實際應用到複雜多連桿雙足機器人時,是否仍具有足夠的動態穩定度,需結合ZMP的動態計算加以評估。為了獲得穩定度仍舊較高的步行模式,本計畫擬加入適當狀態變數的閉迴路補償修正策略,進行步態的在線(on line)修正研究,以增進其強健性。本計畫最後擬以十二個關節之雙足機器人為例,進行雙足步行模式之電腦模擬研究,以了解所提結合被動式動態步行之雙足步行模式生成法的實際效果,並與傳統方法作比較。

The thigh and shank of the swing leg of a human's walking in a level ground are nearlyin a straightened state, and thus can have energy-efficient characteristics. However, the leg isin a singular configuration such that the usual bipedal walking pattern generation for ahumanoid robot does not adopt this approach due to the problem of inverse Jacobiancalculation. Most researches thus let the stance leg be slightly bended to avoid thesingularity and the resulted walking patterns are not similar to a natural walking gait.In this project, to obtain a more energy-efficient and natural gait unit, the foot trajectoryof the swing leg will be generated according to that obtained by a five-mass passive dynamicwalking (PDW) robot walking downhill along a shallow slope. And the stance leg will beconsidered as a massless two-link inverted pendulum to generate the hip mass trajectory. Theinverse kinematics model for the stance leg will be derived in a simplified underactuatedmode to avoid the general singularity problem. The ankle joint trajectory of the stance leg,and the hip joint trajectory of the swing leg can then be formulated in this underactuatedmode.When the bipedal walking pattern generated using this simplified robot model is usedfor an actual complex humanoid robot, the uncertainty arisen from the uneven ground, armmotion, and chunk attitude variation must also be considered and compensated for the realwalking application to guarantee enough dynamic walking stability. In this project, onlinewalking pattern compensation strategy using the feedback of some suitable state variableswill be considered to generate required correction to the derived nominal walking pattern.The ZMP (zero moment point) principle will be used for evaluating the dynamic walkingstability.Finally, this project will conduct extensive computer simulations of the suggestedbipedal walking pattern to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed walking patterngeneration method. A five-stage walking pattern for the twelve-joint bipedal robot will begenerated for simulations. Kinematics, inverse kinematics, and iterative outward dynamicsmodels will be derived and integrated for the complete dynamic simulations. The simulationresults will also be compared with those obtained using the conventional linear-invertedpendulum (3D LIP) approach.
其他識別: NSC100-2221-E005-025
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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