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Particle Filter-Based Implementation for Distributed Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
|關鍵字:||RSSI;接收訊號強度指標;Particle filter localization algorithm;Wireless Sensor Network (WSN);粒子濾波定位演算法;無線感測網路||出版社:||通訊工程研究所||引用:|| 蕭宇成, "分散式自我定位演算法在無線隨意感測網路上之研究," 中興大學, 台中, 2008.  P. Bahl and V. N. Padmanabhan, “RADAR: An in-building RF based user location and tracking system,” Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 775-784, Tel Aviv, Israel, March, 2000.  N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “GPS-less Low-Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices”, IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 28-34, October 2000.  D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad hoc positioning system (APS),” Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 2926-2931, San Antonio, TX, November 2001.  N. B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty and H. Balakrishnan, “The cricket location-support system,” Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM, pp 32-43, Boston, MA, August 2000.  C. Savarese, J. M. Rabaey, J. Beutel, “Locating in Distributed Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of ICASSP, pp. 2037-2040, Salt Lake City, UT, May 2001.  Doherty, K. Pister, L. El Ghaoui, “Convex Position Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceeding IEEE Infocom 2001, April 2001.  R. Iyengar and B. Sikdar, “Scalable and Distributed GPS free Positioning for Sensor Networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications, Volume 1, Page(s): 338-342, May 2003.  TinyOS Form. Available: http://www.tinyos.net/  Contiki. The Contiki Operating System. Available: http://www.sics.se/contiki/  Colorado. MANTIS. Available: http://mantisos.org/index/tiki-index.php.html  SOS Available: https://projects.nesl.ucla.edu/public/sos-2x/doc/index.html  D. Manjunath, "A Review of current Operating systems for Wireless sensor networks," presented at the 22nd Internation Conference on Computers and Their Applications, 2007.  A. K. Dwivedi, et al., "Operating System for Tiny Networked Sensor:A Survey," Recent Trends in Engineering, vol. 1, May 2009.  Yeti2. Available: http://tos-ide.ethz.ch/wiki/pmwiki.php  Candena. Available: http://cadena.projects.cis.ksu.edu/index.shtml  Octave Technology. Availabe:http://www.capsule.hu/local/sensor/documentation/deciphering_tinyOS_serial_packets.pdf  message_t. Availabe: http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos-2.x/doc/html/tep111.html  Serial Communication. Availabe: http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos-2.x/doc/html/tep113.html  Octopus. Availabe: http://www.csi.ucd.ie/content/octopus-dashboard-sensor-networks-visual-control  Moteiv, "Tmote Sky datasheet," 2006.  Yann-Ael Le Borgne, Range based localization with CC2420 Results of an indoor deployment,June 4,2007.  E. Zurich. The Sensor Network Museum. Available: http://www.snm.ethz.ch/Main/HomePage  Moteiv, "Tmote Connect datasheet," 2006.  N. Patwari, et al., "Locating the nodes: cooperative localization in wireless sensor networks," Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 22, pp. 54-69, 2005.  G. Mao, Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks, 2009.  長高科技股份有限公司, XScale270 嵌入式系統實作. 台中: 長高科技股份有限公司, 2007.  K. Whitehouse, et al., "A practical evaluation of radio signal strength for ranging-based localization," SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 11, pp. 41-52, 2007.  Abdalkarim Awad, Thorsten Frunzke, Falko Dressler, "Adaptive Distance Estimation and Localization in WSN using RSSI Measures," dsd, pp.471-478, 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools (DSD 2007), 2007  P. Levis and D. Gay, TinyOS Programming. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.  R. Grossmann, et al., "Localization in Zigbee-based Sensor Networks."  K. Whitehouse. Kamin Whitehouse :: Localization. Available: http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~whitehouse/research/localization/index.html  Boling, Programming Microsoft Windows CE .Net vol. 3. Washington: Microsoft Press, 2003.  SRF02. Available: http://www.robot-electronics.co.uk/htm/srf02tech.htm  黃斐鈺, "嵌入式閘道伺服器在無線感測網路與網際網路資料傳輸之實現" 中興大學, 台中, 2009.||摘要:||
在論文中介紹實現定位系統可分成三部分：感測節點端系統、閘道器系統、伺服端系統。在感測節點系統中使用配置TinyOS作業系統的Tmote Sky感測節點平台實現粒子濾波定位演算法。在閘道器系統使用DMA NAV270開發平台連接感測節點端與伺服端系統間異質網路間通訊。在伺服端系統開發接收由閘道器系統所傳送資料再存入資料庫中，並建立動態網頁讓使用者讀取資料庫資料。
Localization is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSN) since many applications require position information. Due to cost constraints in a sensor node, GPS may not be suitable for the purpose of localization in WSNs. Accordingly, a GPS-free and particle filter-based positioning algorithm is proposed and implemented. At the local level, sensors exploit the “particle filter” methodology to carry out the needed calculations. Besides the advantages of a Bayesian approach, the particles allow a robust method of location identification, which can be tailored to communicate (virtually) any amount of information between sensors. By quantifying the inherent trade-offs (cost of communication vs. improvement with increased communication), it is likely to lead to an adaptable strategy applicable in a variety of situations.
The proposed localization system composes of three parts: sensor nodes, gateway, and the server. In sensor system, Tmote Sky with TinyOS is used to implement particle filter algorithm. In gateway system, DMA-NAV270 platform is used to connect sensor nodes and the server. In server system, a program is developed to receive packets from gateway, which will be stored in database. Furthermore, a web server is established with an active website for sharing the information in database.
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