Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/4987
標題: 南高屏PM10污染源貢獻量分析及減量效應之評估
作者: 賴宏志
Hung-Chih, Lai
關鍵字: 受體模式;CMB;ISC模式;懸浮微粒;ISC;PM10
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 
摘 要
國內對於空氣品質的管理已發展至總量管制的階段,目前南高屏地區為國內懸浮微粒污染最嚴重的區域,為了評估此地區懸浮微粒管制策略所可能導致的效益,本研究收集近二年來於南高屏地區空氣品質監測站所採集分析的PM10組成數據,同時建立並收集與當地相關之國內外各類污染源組成資料,應用CMB模式推估當地污染來源及貢獻量,並配合減量管制措施,以ISCST3模擬實施排放減量之後,各污染源排放至大氣中的PM10濃度減量比例,將此兩者之結果結合之後,可以約略了解各主要污染源減量之後對測站濃度所造成的影響,所得之結果如下:
CMB推估民國87年12月之善化、美濃、屏東及潮州測站之日間及夜間數據,顯示主要污染來源為交通工具排放,平均約佔34%左右、硝酸鹽約佔13%、硫酸鹽佔12%、農廢燃燒12%、地殼元素10%及海洋飛沫約佔3%。而民國88年5月份同一地點的結果顯示,其主要污染源仍為交通工具排放,平均約佔43%左右、地殼元素約佔18%、硫酸鹽佔14%、農廢燃燒10%、海洋飛沫約佔5%及硝酸鹽3%。與12月份之數據相較之下,顯示出冬季時二次光化污染物之硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽的比例明顯較春季時為高,其中硝酸鹽約高出四倍的量。其中冬季時雖然交通排放所佔的比例較春季時為低,但是其所貢獻的濃度實際上比春季的值還高,在農廢燃燒方面,善化、美濃及潮州地區的貢獻比例普遍較高,平均約10%左右,而其他測站的狀況則是百分比甚低,或是高低差異較大,顯示出可能多是突發性農廢燃燒的影響。
此外利用CMB模式評估大寮、小港、林園及潮州等高污染代表站的PM10污染來源結果為,交通污染源所佔的比例仍是最高,四站平均值約為33%,其次為硫酸鹽約佔20%、硝酸鹽約14%、地殼元素約為13%。其中較特殊的為近海之小港、林園測站的海洋飛沫貢獻量明顯較高,佔了約12%左右,高出其他測站約3至4倍,而位於工業區的大寮、小港及林園測站則分析出鋼鐵及石化業鍋爐燃燒的污染貢獻量,但是比例不高,最高約達6%左右。
綜合上述南高屏測站應用CMB模式分析的結果顯示,在原生性PM10方面以移動源所佔的比例最高,約佔27∼40%之間,其次為面源之13∼39%,而固定源方面各站之比例均不高,一般低於7%。衍生性氣膠方面,硫酸鹽的貢獻比例以大寮站最高,約有26%,硝酸鹽則以潮州站最高,約佔18%。在ISC模式模擬污染減量的效益方面,原生性PM10僅在固定源方面有低比例的減量,移動及面源方面幾乎均呈現增量的現象,而衍生性污染物方面,固定源的硫酸鹽下降比例甚高,顯示管制策略之含硫量減量策略,產生了顯著的改善效益,移動源方面則以美濃跟屏東的減量效果較佳,面源方面則不甚明顯。整體而言,排放量減量之後,除了小港測站以外,其餘6個測站PM10濃度值均有下降,下降量約3∼9%之間。小港測站方面,PM10增高的可能原因為當地為高屏地區的重要工業及交通運輸密集地區,原生性逸散面源的排放量以及固定源硫酸鹽削減量抵不過自然成長的增加量,而導致濃度上升的現象,因此針對小港測站可能須提高道路揚塵的洗掃或裸露地表之植被以及加強固定源含硫量減量排放等措施。

Abstract
Air quality management has developed to the stage of total emission quantity controls in Taiwan. The most damaged pollution of PM10 is in Tainan, Kaohsiung and Pingtung area. For estimating the effect of total quantity control (TQC) policy, we try to use Chemical Mass Balance receptor model (CMB) and Industrial Source Complex model (ISC) to quantify PM10 source apportionment and concentration reduce ratio. After combining above results by mentioned methods, We could roughly understand the effect of TQC policy.
The CMB results showed the average contribution at Shanhwa, Meinung, Pingtung and Chaujou during December of 1998 were about 34% of vehicle exhaust, nitrate 13%, sulfate 12%, vegetative burning 12%, fugitive dust 10%, and marine aerosol 3%. And during May 1999, the vehicle exhaust contributed about 43%, fugitive dust 18%, sulfate 14%, vegetative burning 10%, marine aerosol 5%, and nitrate 3%. The results showed that sulfate and nitrate amount of winter are higher than in spring, especially the contribution of nitrate is 4 times higher. At Shanhwa, Meinung, and Chaujou areas, vegetative burning contribution ratio is stabled about 10%, but at Pingtung station is unstable that might come from emergent vegetative burning.
At highly polluted Daliau, Shiaugang, Linyuan, and Chaujou stations, the major pollution comes from vehicle exhaust averaged 33%, and sulfate, nitrate, fugitive dust are 20%, 14%, 13% respectively. The marine aerosol contributions of Shiaugang and Linyuan are about 12% that is apparently higher than other stations. The contributions of steel and oil-fired plant are analyzed at Daliau, Shiaugang and Linyuan stations. But the ratio is lower than 6%.
Results of CMB modeling indicated that mobility sources are the most abundance primary PM10 contribution which ranged from 27 % to 40%, area sources are about 13~39%, but fixed point source contributions are lower than 7%. About secondary aerosol, the highest value of sulfate is 26% at Daliau, and 18% of nitrate at Choujou station. On the other hand, the results of ISC modeling indicated the primary mobility and area sources achieve increasing ratio except fixed point sources. But the sulfate of fixed point sources achieved the most highly reduction ratio. In general, six stations achieved the reduction of PM10 concentration ranged from 3% to 9%, but Shiaugang is not included. We suppose that the reason is Shiaugang located near the most important industrial and heavy traffic area. The amount of pollutant reduction could not afford the increasing volume. Maybe we should enforce the control of fugitive dust and sulfate emission from industrial production.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/4987
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

Show full item record
 
TAIR Related Article

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.