Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/4998
標題: 空氣汙染物減量對雲嘉南地區空氣品質之影響性
A Study on Impact of Air Pollutants Reduction on The Air Quality in Southern Taiwan
作者: 賴春甫
Lai, Chun-Fu
關鍵字: CAMx;CAMx;Ozone episode;Assessment of pollution reduction;臭氧事件日;減量方案之影響評估
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: Chen,K.S., Y.T. Ho, C.H. Lai,Y.M. Chou,“Photochemical modeling and analysis of meteorological parameters during ozone episodes in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. ” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.37, pp.1181-1823(2003). Chatani, S., T. Morikawa, S. Nakatsuka, S. Matsunaga, H. Minoura, “Development of a framework for a high-resolution, three-dimensional regional air quality simulation and its application to predicting future air quality over Japan.”Atmospheric Environment, Vol.45, pp.1383-1393(2011). Coll, I., P. Guido, L. Fanny, “Chapter 4.2 Application and sensitivity analysis of CAMx and CHIMERE air quality models in a coastal area” Developments in Environmental Science, Volume 6, ISSN:1474-8177/DOI:10.1016/S1474-8177 (2007). ENVIRON International Cooperation, “ User’s Guide for Comprehensive air quality model with extensions(CAMx) Version 5.20. ”(2010). http://www.camx.com EPA, “ User’s Guide for the Urban Airshed Model-Volume I; User’s Manual for UAM(CB-IV). ”U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, EPA-450/4-90-007a(1990). Godowitch, J.M., A.B. Gilliland, R.R. Draxler, S.T. Rao, “Modeling assessment of point source NOx emission reductions on ozone air quality in the eastern United States. ”Atmospheric Environment, Vol.42, pp.87-100(2008). Kang, D., V.P. Aneja, R. Mathur, J.D. Ray, “Observed and modeled VOC chemistry under high VOC/NOx conditions in the Southeast United States national parks.” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.38, pp.4969-4974(2004). Luecken, D.J., S. Phillips, G. Sarwar, C. Jang, “Effects of using the CB05 vs. SAPRC99 vs. CB4 chemical mechanism on model predictions: Ozone and gas-phase photochemical precursor concentrations.” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.42, pp.5805-5820(2008). Lei, W.,B.D. Foy,M. Zavala,R. Volkamer,L.T. Molina,“Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model”Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions,Vol.6, pp.7959-8009(2006) Liu, X.H., Y. Zhang, K.M. Olsen, W.X. Wang, B.A. Do, G.M. Bridgers, “Responses of future air quality to emission controls over North Carolina, PartΙ: Mondel evaluation for current-year simulations.” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.44, pp.2443-2456(2010). Liu, X.H., Y. Zhang, K.M. Olsen, W.X. Wang, B.A. Do, G.M. Bridgers, “Responses of future air quality to emission controls over North Carolina, Part II: Analyses of future-year predictions and their policy implications.”Atmospheric Environment, Vol.44, pp.2767-2779(2010). Peng, Y.P., K.S. Chen, C.H. Lai, P.J. Lu, J.H. Kao, “Concentrations of H2O2 and HNO3 and O3-VOC-NOx sensitivity in ambient air in southern Taiwan.”Atmospheric Environment, Vol.40, pp.6741-6751(2006). Tsai, J.H.,Y.C. Hsu, J.Y. Yang,“The relationship between volatile organic profiles and emission sources in ozone episode region-a case study in Southern Taiwan.” Science of the Total Environment, Vol.328, pp. 131-142(2004). Tesche, T.W., R. Morris, G. Tonnesen, D.M. Nally, J. Boylan, P. Brewer, “CMAQ/CAMx annual 2002 performance evaluation over the eastern US.” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.40, pp.4906-4919(2006). Wang, X.S., J.L. Li, Y.H. Zhang, S. D. Xie, X.T. Tang, “Ozone source attribution during a severe photochemical smog episode in Beijing, China.”Science in China Series B: Chemistry, Vol. 52, pp. 1270-1280(2009). Wang, Q., Z. Han, T. Wang, R. Zhang,“Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.”Science of the Total Environment, Vol.395, pp. 41-49(2008). Yarwood, G., S. Rao, M. Yocke, and G.Z. Whitten,“Updates to the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism: CB05. ”Final Report prepared for US EPA(2005). http://www.camx.com/publ/pdfs/CB05_Final_Report_120805.pdf. 王雪松、李金龍,人為源排放VOC對北京地區臭氧生成的貢獻,China Environment Science,Vol.22(6):501-505(2002)。 陳建鴻、李宗宜、張艮輝,臭氧(O3)污染控制方向之本土化模式解析,2001年第19屆空氣汙染控制技術研討,國立雲林科技大學,斗六(2003)。 陳建鴻,跨空品區空氣污染之相互影響模擬與分析,博士班,國立雲林科技大學環境與安全衛生工程學系,雲林(2004)。 張能復,南高屏地區空氣污染總量管制規劃─E1子計畫反應性軌跡模式空氣汙染事件之應用與解析,EPA-88-FA21-03-0012,(1999)。 黃鍾偉,空氣品質模式CAMx於中部空品區臭氧事件日之模擬評估分析,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程學系,台中(2010)。 王建鈞,台灣地區空氣污染物排放處理系統之建立研究─以SMOKE為基礎,碩士論文,國立雲林科技大學環境與安全衛生工程學系,雲林(2005)。 行政院環保署,空氣品質模式支援中心,http://www.aqmc.org.tw/。 行政院環保署,台灣空氣污染排放清冊資料庫,TEDS 7.0 版,(2010)。 網站:http://mommath.cy1000.com.tw/air-ei/Default.asp 陳忠義,中部空品區高臭氧事件之模擬分析,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程學系,台中(1998)。 蔡德明,應用Models-3CMAQ以PC cluster 研究高速公路網與電廠對南高屏地區臭氧濃度之影響,博士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,台南(2006)。 陳聖博,以光化學網格模式評估不同季節臭氧事件日之排放源與風場輸入資料差異,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程學系,台中(2006)。 陳幸芬,台南縣臭氧敏感性物種之調查研究,碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,台南(2002)。 瑩諮科技股份有限公司,98年台中縣總量管制暨特定污染源影響評估計畫期末報告-本文,台中縣環境保護局98年度計畫,(2010)。 劉其欣,境外污染物對台灣地區空氣品質影響,碩士論文,淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系,台北,(2005)。 倪國敦,高高屏地區臭氧趨勢分析與氣象因子相關性之探討,碩士論文,國立中山大學環境工程研究所,高雄(2004)。 陳康興、周明顯,93年度空氣品質監測站污染源來源分析計畫,國立中山大學環境工程研究所,DEPK-A-93-01-14,高雄(2005)。
摘要: 
空氣污染物會受到氣象傳輸擴散、化學反應等影響,造成高濃度污染物的累積、跨縣市傳輸。因此探討一區域之污染物,不全然只探討當地縣市之改善,應研擬出污染源的傳輸與管制策略;或是特定污染物種對臭氧的生成潛力,以達到此空品區之空氣品質改善。

研究結果顯示春季秋季事件日普遍看來,大多污染物的擴散情形都是由西北往東南方擴散;而在高雄產生高濃度臭氧汙染物,往西南方向擴散,推估與當季吹得季風現象(北風、西北風)所致。大約在下午2點左右時,在雲林外海有一高濃度的臭氧氣團生成,一路往南部擴散至台南高雄外海一帶,造成沿海測站臭氧濃度升高。不過大致影響區域停留在外海,這部分的污染氣團沒有擴散至內陸。就測站與模擬值比較而言,符合環保署所公告模式模擬評估標準要求;整體春季平均配對值常化偏差為12.16%,配對值之絕對誤差為23.14%;秋季平均配對值常化偏差為4.32%,配對值之絕對誤差為24.8%。

根據研究顯示,揮發性有機物的排放量減少能有效抑制臭氧濃度,無論是在春季、秋季的資料顯示上;減少氮氧化物的排放量反而在某些區域提高臭氧生成濃度。因此,從資料數據推斷空氣品質在雲林、嘉義、台南地區呈現VOC-limited的型態。從模擬資料顯示,減少20%揮發性有機物的排放,春季最高臭氧的減少發生在崙背3.58%;秋季最高臭氧的減少發生在台南2.05%。針對每個縣市揮發性有機物排放量減量個別減量20%,各別縣市減量影響效果大小排序為春季雲林>台南>嘉義>高雄;秋季雲林>台南=高雄>嘉義。

The formation of air pollutants are affected by meteorological factors and chemical reactions. Thus high concentration of air pollutants will be accumulated and transported across cities and counties. The mitigation of air pollutants in one city(one county) is thus not only limiting the emissions in just that city(county), the transport across city(county) boundaries should also be considered. The ozone formation potential should also be considered for some high potential species also.

The study results showed that during spring and autumn season, air pollutants would largely disperse from northwest to southeast. And ozone formed in Kaohsiung area would disperse to southwest. Prevailing winds (mostly north and northwest winds) are the cause for this kind of dispersion. It is observed that at around 2 p.m. a high ozone cloud was formed around the near coast sea area in Yunlin. And this cloud will transport down south along the coast. This high ozone cloud remained on the sea surface instead moved inland.

The simulation done in this study meets the maximum bias(MB), overall bias (OB)and gross error(GE) criteria proposed by the EPA, Taiwan. For spring simulation, the maximum OB is 12.16%, and maximum GE is 23.14%; maximum OB is 4.32% and maximum GE is 24.8% for autumn simulation.

It is observed that VOC emission reduction decreases ozone concentration significantly, both in spring and autumn. Reduction of NOx emission can increase ozone concentration in some area. It is thus deduced that the air quality in Yulin-Chiayi-Tainan area is VOC-limited. The simulation showed that a reduction of VOC emission at 20%, a maximum ozone reduction occurred in Lunbei at 3.58% in spring; and 2.05% ozone reduction in Tainan in autumn. The effect of VOC emission reduction for each county is also studied. The effect of ozone reduction is ordered as Yunlin>Tainan>Chiayi>Kaohsiung in spring; and the order in autumn is Yunlin>Tainan=Kaohsiung>Chiayi.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/4998
其他識別: U0005-1807201117470700
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

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