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Study on the chemical compositions of ambient fine particulates and the measurements of nitrate constituent
|關鍵字:||denuder;環形擴散採樣器;PM2.5;nitrate;volatile;細懸浮微粒;硝酸鹽;揮發||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||Abu-Allaban, M., A. W. Gertler and D. H. Lowenthal, "A Preliminary Apportionment of the Sources of Ambient PM10, PM2.5, and VOCs in Cairo," Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, pp. 5549-5557 (2002). Allegrini, I., F. D. Santis, V. D. Palo, A. Febo, C. Perrino and M. Possanzini, "Annular Denuder Method for Sampling Reactive Gases and Aerosols in the Atmosphere, " Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 67, pp. 1-16 (1987). Ammann, M., M. Kalberer, D. T. Jost, L. Tobler, E. Rossler, D. Piguet, H. W. Gaggeler and U. Baltensperger, "Heterogeneous Production of Nitrous Acid on Soot in Polluted Air Masses," Nature, Vol. 395, pp. 157-160 (1998). Appel, B. R., Y. Tokiwa and M. Haik, "Sampling of Nitrates in Ambient Air," Atmospheric Environment (1967), Vol. 15, pp. 283-289 (1981). Ashbaugh, L. L. and R. A. 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研究結果顯示環形擴散採樣器(Denuder)量測之PM2.5於2010年3月至2011年2月採樣期間平均濃度為43.8 μg/m3，其主要水溶性離子成分為SO42-、NO3-及NH4+，濃度分別為7.0 μg/m3 (16.7%)、5.4 μg/m3 (11.1%)及3.7 μg/m3 (8.4 %)，雙粒徑分道採樣器(Dichot)量測之PM2.5平均濃度為33.3 μg/m3，主要水溶性離子成分為SO42-、NH4+及NO3-，濃度分別為6.1 μg/m3 (19.7%)、3.7 μg/m3 (11.0 %)及2.8 μg/m3 (7.5%)，Denuder採集之NO3-平均濃度為5.08 μg/m3，比Dichot多2.13 μg/m3，兩者比較可得一迴歸公式：[NO3-] Denuder = 1.47 [NO3-] Dichot + 0.86 (μg/m3)。Denuder春、夏、秋、冬的NO3-揮發量(揮發濃度佔總濃度比例)分別為51%、59%、 46%及36%，NO3-揮發量與溫度有良好正相關(r=0.62)，與相對濕度為負相關(r=0.41)。
前驅氣體污染物HCl、HNO2、HNO3、SO2及NH3採樣期間平均濃度分別為0.33、2.26、0.93、3.80及7.96 μg/m3，硫轉化率(Fs)全年平均為27.5 %，氮轉化率Fn為7.9 %，顯示採樣期間臺中都會區的硫氧化物及氮氧化物多以SO2及 NO2的型態存在，Fs有日低夜高趨勢，Fn日夜差異不明顯，Fs除了春季日間與相對濕度有良好相關性0.61以外，與其他氣象因子無明顯相關性，而Fn日間與O3-max有正相關性，Fn夜間則與相對濕度呈現正相關。
An annular denuder system was used to collect PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and gaseous pollutants in the Taichung urban area. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition using an ion chromatograph. We explored the characteristics of PM2.5 particles and gaseous pollutants and assessed the influence of seasonal and diurnal trends in the Taichung metropolitan area. In addition, an annular denuder system and dichotomous sampler were used to establish the correction factor for NO3- concentration. This correction factor can be used to correct the underestimation of the dichotomous sampler due to capture the volatile components.
Results measured by using the denuder indicated an average PM2.5 concentration of 43.8 μg/m3 during the sampling period of March 2010 to February 2011. The main water-soluble ionic composition in the samples measured by Denuder is SO42- (16.7%)、NO3- (11.1%) and NH4+ (8.4 %). The average concentration of PM2.5 measured by Dichot is 33.3 μg/m3, with the main water-soluble ionic composition being SO42- (19.7%)、NH4+ (11.0 %) and NO3- (7.5%). The average concentration of NO3- collected by Denuder is 5.08 μg/m3, an average of 2.13 μg/m3 more than that measured by Dichot. A comparison between the two measurements yields the regression formula: [NO3-] Denuder = 1.47 [NO3-] Dichot + 0.86 (μg/m3). Volatilization of NO3- (the percentage of the volatile concentration and the total concentration) measured by Denuder in the spring, summer, autumn and winter were 51%, 59%, 46% and 36%. There is a significant positive correlation between the volatilization of NO3- and temperature, as well as a significant negative correlation between the volatilization of NO3- and relative humidity.
The average concentrations of HCl、HNO2、HNO3、SO2 and NH3 were 0.33、2.26、0.93、3.80 and 7.96 μg/m3, respectively. The annual average of sulfur conversion ratio is 27.5%, while the nitrogen conversion ratio is 7.9%. Results from the sampling period indicated that in the Taichung metropolitan area, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are mainly released in the form of SO2 and NO2. Fs is significant lower during the day and higher at night, while no significant difference was observed for Fn between the daytime and nighttime. In the spring, there is a significant positive correlation between Fs and relative humidity, with Fs having no significant correlation with any other meteorological factors. Results also showed a positive correlation between Fn and O3-max during the day and between Fn and relative humidity at night.
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