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標題: 渦流協變性系統與分壓梯度法觀測表水二氧化碳通量之研究
Comparison of CO2 fluxes determining with the eddy covariance system and the CO2 partial pressure gradient between the air-sea interfaces
作者: 張詠翔
Chang, Yung-Tsang
關鍵字: flux;通量;PKT;Underway PCO2;ECS;profile method;PKT;Underway PCO2;渦流協變性系統;梯度法
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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近年來開放式二氧化碳偵測系統在海洋觀測二氧化碳通量已有許多國內外學者的使用,且有相當的文獻。而傳統海洋二氧化碳通量之觀測是利用封閉性的二氧化碳偵測儀器。本文嘗試在生態圈較為明顯的水體比較兩者的二氧化碳通量,分別做了三個案例;第一個案例將開放式渦流協變性系統與封閉性Underway PCO2系統架設於台南市七股區黑面琵鷺保育中心的水池進行觀測。結果顯示二氧化碳通量以開放式二氧化碳偵測儀的二氧化碳通量會大於Underway PCO2系統所計算的二氧化碳通量2個order,而且通量方向相反。第二個案例加入了大氣梯度法來比較二氧化碳通量方向與數值。大氣梯度法的結果是其二氧化碳通量方向與趨勢和開放式二氧化碳偵測儀相似,而通量數值大於開放式二氧化碳偵測儀8倍左右,但通量方向仍與Underway PCO2不一致。案例三為架設在附近的魚塭,其生態活動較為明顯,二氧化碳通量應該比較強,使兩系統的通量會相同。案例三為開放式二氧化碳偵測儀器與Underway PCO2系統比較兩套系統計算出的二氧化碳通量。開放式二氧化碳偵測儀器所計算的二氧化碳通量為負值(SINK),而Underway PCO2系統計算的二氧化碳通量為正值(SOURCE),且水體中的二氧化碳濃度有明顯的日夜週期變化。
加入國外學者John Prytherch發展的PKT校正法,目的為校正相對濕度對二氧化碳濃度的影響。本文利用前面案例一與案例三的資料來做PKT校正。案例一與案例三的PKT校正結果,PKT校正能夠將WPL校正過後所受到相對濕度影響所造成的偏差所校正回正確值,其PKT校正後的二氧化碳通量會小於只有經過WPL校正的二氧化碳通量。且本實驗在5月14日通量數值與Underway pCO2系統所計算的二氧化碳通量數值相當接近,但是通量方向仍是相反。
最後將Underway pCO2系統二氧化碳通量計算法加入pH參數,以及利用1.5米的大氣二氧化碳濃度帶入Underway PCO2系統,其結果會與渦流協變性系統之二氧化碳通量結果相近,通量方向與數值有一致性。

Open path CO2 analyzer has been used in CO2 flux measurements over ocean recently. CO2 flux has been estimated by close path CO2 analyzer for decades.
To compare the CO2 flux of open path and close path methods, three experiments were set in the study: (1) using open path eddy covariance system (ECS) and close path Underway pCO2 system to measure CO2 fluxes over pool in Black-faced Spoonbill Conservation Association in Cigu Dist. The results showed that the CO2 flux of open path CO2 analyzer is up to 100 times larger than that of close path, but the direction of flux is opposite; (2) in the second case, the third method, profile method was added to estimate CO2 flux. The result of profile method showed that the tendency of flux is the same as ECS, but the flux of profile method is about 8 times larger than open path, however, direction of flux was still inconsistent with Underway pCO2 system; (3) the results of the experiment in a fish pond which has stronger ecosphere activities showed that the flux of open path is positive (sink), and it's negative (source) for close path method. In addition, the diurnal cycle of CO2 concentration is obvious where it is lower in the daytime and higher at night.
The PKT Method was used to calibrate the effect between relative humidity and CO2 concentration in case (1) and case (3). In both cases, PKT Method can correct the biases resulted from the relative humidity after WPL correction, the CO2 flux after calibrating by PKT Method was smaller than WPL calibration method, and the flux in May 14th is similar to the flux of Underway pCO2 system, but the direction of flux is still opposite.
After adding pH parameter and CO2 atmospheric concentration measured at 1.5 m into the CO2 flux calculation of Underway pCO2 system, the results showed that the flux and the direction of flux will be consistent with ECS.
其他識別: U0005-2208201115093600
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