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標題: 美國帝國主義文化與另類亞美研究-菲裔美國文學中的性(別)、種族與帝國
U.S. Imperialist Cultures and the Other Asian/America- Gender, Sex, Race and Empire in Filipino American Literature (II-III)
作者: 陳淑卿 
關鍵字: 基礎研究;Filipino-American literature;語文;菲美文學;美國帝國主義;帝國親密;生物權力;生命政治;治理;情動力;the U;S;imperialism;imperial intimacy;biopower;biopolitics;governmentality;affect
美國帝國主義文化與另類亞美文學研究:菲美文學中的性(別)、種族與帝國私領域的性(別)關係與公領域的種族權力宰制之間的複雜連結,一直是後殖民研究的重要議題及方法,在亞美文學研究的範疇內,這個研究方向隨著艾美‧卡普蘭(Amy Kaplan)所倡議的美國帝國主義研究的興起,以及安‧羅拉‧史托樂的(Ann Laura Stoler)「帝國親密」論述而漸漸受到矚目。本計畫試圖從亞美研究的帝國面向切入,探討菲裔美國文學的性別、性意識、種族形塑與帝國的內在治理之間的糾葛,並進一步討論菲裔美國特殊的殖民歷史背景如何生產出菲裔移民的身體、情慾、情動力。將亞美研究所挑戰的國家重新定義為帝國,可以拓展國家想像的空間,使得域外國境(extranational territory)在域外與域內的曖昧重疊裡,成為揭露帝國治理與移民管束互為文本的最佳地點,帝國治理技術將菲裔移民治理放在殖民者與被殖民者的文化邂逅場景(cultural contact zone),移植殖民者對菲律賓土地∕身體的文化製碼,重置於移民法,作為種族管理的基礎文法。二十世紀中期的帝國移民治理,一方面嚴格監控菲裔移民與白人女子的異族通婚,一方面透過大蕭條時期性產業的興起,將其慾望模式、家庭需求及社群歸屬拆散重組,導向性的商業交易,而後在大眾文化論述生產出性慾超載(hypersexual)的菲律賓族裔身體,而私領域身體的過度顯形,則導向公領域族裔主體的集體隱形。這些帝國生物權力在私領域的細膩治理,關係到特定族群是否有法定資源可以聲言美國的公領域歸屬。除了探討公領域權力的幽微管理路徑,本研究更關心的是,通過歷史的創傷生產出來的族裔性(別)身體,如何在進入殖民知識∕權力所生產的情慾模式裡,反寫其慾望組構,拆解資本慾望、國家認同與情慾的纏缚,使慾、情鍊結,因情而能動,由情動力而迴向族裔能動力。本連續性計畫的第一年(98/08-99/07)以Carols Bulosan的小說America Is in My Heart(1943)為主要研究文本,探討上世紀40年代美國社會對菲裔移工的身體監控與勞力剝削,如何透過帝國親密的微形權力來進行 (詳細研究成果請參閱C012-1第二部分上年度計畫執行說明) 。下兩年度的計畫將以Han Ong的小說Fixer Chao與 Jessica Hagedorn 的 Dogeaters, 及Dream Jungle 為研究文本,針對小說所呈現的異性戀異族親密、同性戀異族親密、跨族裔的異∕同性親密,以及其背後的帝國生命政治、和大眾文化想像進行探討。以下概述各年的主要研究主題:第一年: 酷兒離散與動情模仿:王瀚的《風水大師》(Han Ong, Fixer Chao. 2001)描寫一個菲裔街頭男妓偽裝成華裔風水大師,對紐約上流社會所代表的族裔階級意識形態進行報復。有趣的是,本書中不管是風水大師或上流社會生活,幾乎都是不具顛覆力的「模仿」的結果,針對本書的「模仿」議題,已經有批評家討論過,本計畫有興趣的是,族裔或階級模仿(包括情慾模式、情感結構、家庭組構、家庭佈置等)如何可以被解讀為帝國生物權力治理的產物,而被視為病態的跨族裔同性親密,是否可以在重複與差異的演示之餘,發展出某種具顛覆力的情動力。第二年:帝國親密、資本慾望與國家認同:潔西卡‧海格彤的兩部小說《吃狗肉的人》(Dogeaters)和《夢叢林》(Dream Jungle)都以冷戰時期的美菲戰略關係為背景,在兩部小說的複雜情節經緯裡,各有一段帝國(白人∕亞裔)親密關係,《狗肉》的混血同志喬依與德國導演雷納及《叢林》的麗娜與美國演員穆迪,本文擬將兩段異族親密放在當時的政經歷史情境,討論冷戰時期東亞的性帝國圖誌,以及族裔主體與既定異國情慾文本的斡旋。

The U.S. Imperialist Cultures and the Other Asian/America:Gender, Sex, Race, and Empire in Filipino American LiteratureThe complicated connections between the governmentality of gender and sex in the private sphere and the racial formation in the public sphere have been an important issue and a provocative method of research in the field of postcolonial studies. With Amy Kaplan's promotion of the study of American imperialism and the growing influence of Ann Laura Stoler's theorization of the “imperial intimacy,” Asian American cultural and literary studies have increasingly turned to and benefited from these compelling new insights. This two-year project intends to trace the relationality between gender, sex, and racial formation as shown in Filipino American literature by exploring the history of U.S. imperial governmentality. More importantly, through an exploration of the history of U.S. imperial colonization of the Philippines, this project strives to understand the way in which imperialist biopolitics produces specific modes of desire, bodies, sensibility, and affect on the part of the postcolonial Filipino immigrants. The Philippines is understood as an extranational territory whose existence pushes the boundaries of America's national imagination to reveal the nation's imperial enterprise—a fact that has been concealed and forgotten. In the extranational territory, immigrant laws and imperialist techniques of governmentality are in a relation of mutual writing. The cultural encodings of the colonized's lands / bodies in the cultural contact zone have been transplanted to the scenarios of immigrant laws to serve as the basic grammar for racial surveillance. In the mid-twentieth century, American empire protects its racial hierarchy through the passing of antimiscegenation laws, forbidding White-Asian/Filipino marriage. Lacking proper mates to establish homes and communities, the Filipino workers were forced to find temporary sexual release in commercial sexual providers, which in turn strengthens the image of the hypersexual Filipino bodies in public imagination. As a consequence, the over-exposed private bodies lead to the invisibility of the collective ethnic subjectivity. These subtle biopolitical managements in the private sphere are crucial to obstruct a specific ethnic group's legitimacy to claim the nation and forge a sense of national belonging in the public sphere. Other than tracing the complicated routes of biopolitical governmentality, this project is especially interested in understanding the ways in which ethnic, sexualized subjects, as they are produced by the historical trauma of imperialist governmentality, reconfigure their structures of feelings and modes of desire, to achieve a certain kind of affect that is able to disrupt capitalist desire, and racialized constitution of American nationality. I will read Han Ong's Fixer Chao and Jessica Hagedorn's Dogeaters and Dream Jungle in light of interracial intimacy on both heterosexual level and homosexual level, and explore the imperial biopolitics and public imagination that are responsible for their production.The first year: Queer diaspora and affective mimicryIn Han Ong's Fixer Chao (2001), a Filipino street hustler and gay prostitute disguises as a Feng Shui master to take revenge on the New York upper crust. Interestingly, both the Feng Shui master and the upper class life of the New Yorkers are the results of non-subversive mimicry. I attempt to read these failed acts of mimicry of ethnic and cultural life—including the mimicry of modes of desire, structure of feelings, family structure, and domestic design-- as the product of imperialist biopolitical management. The affective exchange between the protagonist and the Japanese American character, Kando, seems to offer a same-sex interracial intimacy that, through repetitive and differential performance, can be read as a subversive affect. The second year: Imperial intimacy, capitalist desire, and national belongingsBoth set in Cold-War era, Jessica Hagedorn's Dogeaters and Dream Jungle provide two cases of imperial intimacy. In Dogeaters Joey Sand, the bastard son of a Filipino prostitute and a black American GI, is involved sexually with a German director; in Dream Jungle Rizalina Cayabyab, a housemaid of the protagonist, is romantically involved with the American actor Vincent Moody. I will place these two cases of imperial intimacy in the historical context of the East Asian sexual empire and examine the characters' negotiation and contests with the imperialist cultural inscription which overdetermines their sexuality and modes of desire.
其他識別: NSC99-2410-H005-006-MY2
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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