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In-Stack Measurements of Particulate Size Distributions and Comparisons of Two PM10 Sampling Methods
|關鍵字:||In-stack;煙道採樣;particulate;Size Distributions;JIS K0302;Method 201A;粒狀物;粒徑分布;排放係數||出版社:||環境工程學系||摘要:||
本研究依日本公告之JIS K0302煙道排放粒狀物採樣方法，進行水泥業、電力業、鋼鐵業、石化業、陶瓷業、瀝青業、磚窯業、造紙業及油煤業等九種不同行業之煙道排放微粒粒徑分布的量測，並比較美國公告之Method 201A和日本公告的方法量測煙道廢氣中PM10之濃度，研究之目的主要分析上述兩種採樣方法之差異性，並進一步和AP-42與TED’s之排放量及排放係數比較。
實驗結果顯示鋼鐵業、陶瓷業、電力業、水泥業、油煤業、造紙業與瀝青業排放之PM2.5/PM10比值均大於0.5，而石化業與磚窯業的PM2.5/PM10則小於0.5，各行業的中位數粒徑以磚窯業4.36 μm為最高，鋼鐵業排放之中位數粒徑1.49 μm為最低，九大行業中以電力業為雙峰分布外，其餘行業均呈現單峰分布狀態。PM10/TPM比值最高為陶瓷業0.94，並以磚窯業PM10/TPM比值最低，僅約為0.64。
由36組採集的數據分析得知美國方法所測得PM10濃度為日本方法所測得PM10濃度的1.1 ~ 3.3倍，兩者相關係數R2值為0.85，前者所推估之PM10排放量大於日本方法的推估值，最多可達1.2倍，且較TED’s之PM10排放量多1.2 ~ 1.5倍。綜合煙道檢測及風洞標準粒徑微粒校正之結果，得知日本方法使用階梯衝擊器可能有內部採樣損失（interstage loss）的問題。
檢測結果所推估之燃油鍋爐排放係數介於0.5 ~ 1.3 g/kg-fuel，此數據為美國AP-42排放係數的0.5 ~ 1.3倍之間，然與國內外文獻的研究成果比較，則差異值亦約在0.6 ~ 1.4倍之間，此結果顯示TED’s所提供之燃油鍋爐排放係數與實測結果相近。
This study used the Japanese standard sampling method JIS K0302 to measure the size distributions of particulate emission from nine various factories including cement plant, power plant, steel plant, petroleum plant, ceramic plant, asphalt plant, brickkiln plant, papermaking plant and oil-coal plant. The PM10 concentrations obtained from these results were then compared with the PM10 measured by the US EPA Method 201A. The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences between the data obtained by using these two standard methods. Furthermore, the particulate emission and the emission coefficients were estimated and also compared with those obtained from the AP-42 and the TED's data.
Experimental results showed the emission ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 from steel plant, ceramic plant, power plant, cement plant, oil-coal plant, papermaking plant and asphalt plant were greater than 50 %, while larger particles were observed from the petroleum plant and brickkiln plant. Among these results, the greatest and smallest mass medium diameters were 4.36 μm and 1.49 μm from the brickkiln plant and the steel plant, respectively. Besides the size distribution of particulate emitted from the power plant was bimodal, the others were all single mode distributions. The highest emission ratio of PM10 to TPM was 0.94 from the ceramic plant and the lowest one was 0.64 from the brickkiln plant.
Based on the results of the total 36 samples, PM10 concentrations obtained by using Method 201A were well correlated with those by JIS K0302 (R2＝0.85). However, the former results were 1.1 to 3.3 times greater than the latter due to the interstage loss in the cascade impactor. The estimated PM10 emission from the Method 201A were 1.2 times and 1.2 to 1.5 times higher than those by JIS K0302 and TED's, respectively.
It is worth to point out that the estimated emission coefficients from the fuel boiler ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 g/kg-fuel, which were close to the values given by the AP-42 and the literature and also agree well with the emission coefficients provided by the TED's.
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