Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50790
標題: Antioxidant Properties and Polysaccharide Composition Analysis of Antrodia camphorata and Agaricus blazei
樟芝與姬松茸之抗氧化性質及其多醣組成分析
作者: Huang, Ling-Chuan
黃鈴娟
關鍵字: 樟芝;Antrodia camphorata;姬松茸;抗氧化性質;多醣體;結構分析;Agaricus blazei;antioxidant property;polysaccharides;the structural analysis
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: 
近年來菇類成為引人注目之機能性食品及藥物發展之來源,而樟芝是生長於台灣牛樟樹腐木上多孔科無褶菌目之新種擔子菌,姬松茸則為日本學者近幾年來爭相研究之食用菌,因樟芝及姬松茸據說有抗癌、抗腫瘤及具免疫調節活性等作用,但至今未有學者研究探討其抗氧化性。本研究則以野生採集之樟芝子實體及其經深層培養之菌絲體與栽培之姬松茸子實體及兩種深層培養之菌絲體(GK4和GK6)作為樣品,進行其一般成分分析和抗氧化性質評估,並萃取兩種菇菌之多醣體,探討其多醣體之組成與結構特性。
樟芝之新鮮子實體含有68%水分,其乾物成分中主要含有粗纖維及碳水化合物,但亦含有高量之粗脂質(32~37%),其菌絲體中主要成分則為碳水化合物及蛋白質(53.46%和23.83%);姬松茸之子實體及菌絲體之主要成分皆為碳水化合物及蛋白質,但子實體者含有較高量之粗蛋白質(35.86%),而菌絲體中則含較高量之碳水化合物(52~59%)及粗灰分。於抗氧化性質之測定,樟芝子實體及菌絲體之甲醇萃取物皆具有強的抗氧化性質,在抗氧化力(共軛雙烯法)、還原力、捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH·)、超氧陰離子及螯合亞鐵離子之能力亦隨著其濃度增加而有上升之趨勢;姬松茸子實體及菌絲體GK4之甲醇萃取物亦有如樟芝者之良好抗氧化性質,而菌絲體GK6者因培養時添加植物油為培養基以促進菌絲生長,而使其具有較佳之抗氧化力,但其餘之抗氧化性質皆較前兩者差。在天然抗氧化成分方面,樟芝與姬松茸之甲醇萃取物中皆含有多酚類化合物,但子實體者含量皆顯著高於菌絲體者,而兩種菇菌具有良好的抗氧化性質亦可能因其含有如多酚類之抗氧化成分所致。
於樟芝菌絲體與姬松茸子實體及菌絲體之多醣萃取物分析,樟芝者以發酵濾液多醣之總糖含量顯著高於水萃取及鹼萃取者,而鹼萃取多醣因未經中和酸鹼值處理,而使其含有一些鹼溶性蛋白質;在姬松茸多醣萃取物中亦含有微量蛋白質,其菌絲體者總糖含量(48~73%)較子實體者低(72~79%)。多醣體以酸水解之中性單糖組成於樟芝發酵濾液多醣體中,以甘露糖、葡萄糖及木糖為主,而其水萃取及鹼萃取者皆以葡萄糖及木糖為主要單糖,且無甘露糖存在;姬松茸菌絲體之單糖組成,於濾液多醣者以半乳糖、木糖及核糖為主,水萃取及鹼萃取多醣則以葡萄糖及木糖為主要單糖組成,而其子實體水萃取及鹼萃取者之單糖組成亦同於前者。
兩種菇菌之多醣體經膠體過濾層析後得知其皆含有大於106 Da之大分子,以核磁共振光譜判定多醣結構,可得知其具有b-D-葡聚糖的化學位移及紅外線光譜上具有糖類官能基之吸光特性,但其明確機制仍有待進一步純化大分子多醣體後,再加以探討。綜合本研究之結果可知樟芝及姬松茸皆含有菇類主要成分之碳水化合物及蛋白質,且其甲醇萃取物皆具有良好的抗氧化性,而兩種菇菌皆含有大分子之多醣體,且以不同單糖組成存在於其子實體及菌絲體中,但經光譜分析後皆得知其含有可能具生理活性之b-D-葡聚糖。

Mushrooms have recently become attractive as a functional food and a source for the development of pharmaceuticals. A new basidiomycete Antrodia camphorata (niu chang ku) in the Polyporaceae (Aphyllophorales), which causes brown heart rot of Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Agaricus blazei Murill is a famous mushroom in Japan and possesses many physiological properties. A. camphorata and A. blazei were reported to have antitumor, anticancer and immuno- modulating activities, but none of its antioxidant properties was reported.
This research used wild picked fruit bodies and mycelia harvested from submerged culture of A. camphorata, cultivated fruit bodies and two different strains (GK4 and GK6) of mycelia from A. blazei as samples to study the proximate composition, antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts, the monosaccharide constituents and the structural analysis of polysaccharides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with known compounds.
Fruit bodies of A. camphorata contained 68% of moisture. In dry matter, fibers and carbohydrates were major components (22% and 32~37%), and crude fat comprised of 32~37%. In mycelia, carbohydrates and proteins were major components (53.46% and 23.83%). Proteins and carbohydrates were major components in both fruiting bodies and mycelia of A. blazei. Carbohydrates and ash contents were higher in mycelia (52~59% and 9~16%). Both methanolic extracts of A. camphorata fruiting bodies and mycelia showed very high antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activity using the conjugated diene method, the reducing power, the scavenging effect on 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and superoxide anions, and the chelating effect on ferrous ions of methanolic extracts from A. camphorata increased with the increased concentrations. The data of methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies and mycelia GK4 from A. blazei are comparable with that of A. camphorata. Mycelia GK6, obtained from the medium supplemented with vegetable oil, was not so effective as fruiting bodies and mycelia GK4 of A. blazei. A. camphorata or A. blazei showed the higher antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts that may contain high contents of polyphenols, and the contents in methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies were more than those in mycelia. Polyphenol contents in two kinds of mushrooms might be the major effective component for the above tests.
In A. camphorata mycelia, the total sugar contents of cultured filtrate polysaccharides were higher than those of water extract and alkaline extract polysaccharides. Alkaline extract showed low contents of microprotein due to the solubilization of protein at alkaline pH. The contents of microprotein from A. blazei mycelial polysaccharides was the same with A. camphorata mycelia. A. blazei mycelia had lower amount of total sugar (48~73%), whereas fruiting bodies of A. blazei had the highest amount (72~79%). The compositions of neutral monosaccharide in cultured filtrate polysaccharides of A. camphorata were mannose, glucose and xylose. Glucose and xylose were the major monosaccharides in water extract and alkaline extract of polysaccharides from A. camphorata mycelia. The neutral monosaccharide compositions of A. blazei were the same with A. camphorata mycelia, but cultured filtrate polysaccharides of A. blazei had galactose, xylose and ribose. Both A. camphorata and A. blazei polysaccharides was separacted using gel filtration, and showed a molecular weight of about 106 Da. Their structure were elucidated by NMR, X-ray and IR spectroscopy. In 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral comparison with know compounds, two kinds of mushroom polysaccharides have a b-D-glucan chain. The IR spectrum showed an absorption band of functional group of sugar from polysaccharides. For the application in healthy food, further research on the mechanism of polysaccharide properties is in progress.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50790
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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