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|標題:||Antioxidant Properties and Polysaccharide Composition Analysis of Antrodia camphorata and Agaricus blazei
|關鍵字:||樟芝;Antrodia camphorata;姬松茸;抗氧化性質;多醣體;結構分析;Agaricus blazei;antioxidant property;polysaccharides;the structural analysis||出版社:||食品科學系||摘要:||
Mushrooms have recently become attractive as a functional food and a source for the development of pharmaceuticals. A new basidiomycete Antrodia camphorata (niu chang ku) in the Polyporaceae (Aphyllophorales), which causes brown heart rot of Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Agaricus blazei Murill is a famous mushroom in Japan and possesses many physiological properties. A. camphorata and A. blazei were reported to have antitumor, anticancer and immuno- modulating activities, but none of its antioxidant properties was reported.
This research used wild picked fruit bodies and mycelia harvested from submerged culture of A. camphorata, cultivated fruit bodies and two different strains (GK4 and GK6) of mycelia from A. blazei as samples to study the proximate composition, antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts, the monosaccharide constituents and the structural analysis of polysaccharides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with known compounds.
Fruit bodies of A. camphorata contained 68% of moisture. In dry matter, fibers and carbohydrates were major components (22% and 32~37%), and crude fat comprised of 32~37%. In mycelia, carbohydrates and proteins were major components (53.46% and 23.83%). Proteins and carbohydrates were major components in both fruiting bodies and mycelia of A. blazei. Carbohydrates and ash contents were higher in mycelia (52~59% and 9~16%). Both methanolic extracts of A. camphorata fruiting bodies and mycelia showed very high antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activity using the conjugated diene method, the reducing power, the scavenging effect on 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and superoxide anions, and the chelating effect on ferrous ions of methanolic extracts from A. camphorata increased with the increased concentrations. The data of methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies and mycelia GK4 from A. blazei are comparable with that of A. camphorata. Mycelia GK6, obtained from the medium supplemented with vegetable oil, was not so effective as fruiting bodies and mycelia GK4 of A. blazei. A. camphorata or A. blazei showed the higher antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts that may contain high contents of polyphenols, and the contents in methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies were more than those in mycelia. Polyphenol contents in two kinds of mushrooms might be the major effective component for the above tests.
In A. camphorata mycelia, the total sugar contents of cultured filtrate polysaccharides were higher than those of water extract and alkaline extract polysaccharides. Alkaline extract showed low contents of microprotein due to the solubilization of protein at alkaline pH. The contents of microprotein from A. blazei mycelial polysaccharides was the same with A. camphorata mycelia. A. blazei mycelia had lower amount of total sugar (48~73%), whereas fruiting bodies of A. blazei had the highest amount (72~79%). The compositions of neutral monosaccharide in cultured filtrate polysaccharides of A. camphorata were mannose, glucose and xylose. Glucose and xylose were the major monosaccharides in water extract and alkaline extract of polysaccharides from A. camphorata mycelia. The neutral monosaccharide compositions of A. blazei were the same with A. camphorata mycelia, but cultured filtrate polysaccharides of A. blazei had galactose, xylose and ribose. Both A. camphorata and A. blazei polysaccharides was separacted using gel filtration, and showed a molecular weight of about 106 Da. Their structure were elucidated by NMR, X-ray and IR spectroscopy. In 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral comparison with know compounds, two kinds of mushroom polysaccharides have a b-D-glucan chain. The IR spectrum showed an absorption band of functional group of sugar from polysaccharides. For the application in healthy food, further research on the mechanism of polysaccharide properties is in progress.
|Appears in Collections:||食品暨應用生物科技學系|
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