Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50878
標題: Preparation of Grifola frondosa - Fermented Wheat Using Solid State Fermentation and Its Quality and Antioxidant Properties
以固態發酵製備舞菇小麥及其品質與抗氧化性質
作者: 林欣儀
Lin, Shin-Yi
關鍵字: 舞菇;Grifola frondosa;固態發酵;呈味品質;抗氧化;反應曲面法;solid- state fermentation;taste quality;antioxidant properties;response surface methodology
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系
摘要: 
舞菇(Grifola frondosa)在日本稱為「舞茸」,為一種食藥用菇。近年來已有學者證實舞菇具抗腫瘤、抗糖尿病、抗愛滋病、增加免疫力等多種生理活性。然國內外研究多以液態發酵為主,本研究主要是利用固態發酵技術以一次一因子之方法探討舞菇最適培養條件,並針對舞菇菌絲體、舞菇小麥及小麥,進行一般成分、呈味、物性、生理活性物質、抗氧化之分析,並利用反應曲面法探討各獨立變數間之交互作用。利用平板培養舞菇菌絲之結果,溫度30ºC、pH 5、以乳糖為碳源、malt extract為氮源及KH2PO4為無機鹽時,舞菇菌絲生長情形最好。固態發酵之結果,使用六種常見穀類為基質,最後結果以含水量60%之小麥於30ºC下培養14天後之生物質含量最高,可達509.11 mg/g,以添加乳糖為碳源,生物質含量可達573.00 mg/g;在氮源方面,添加malt extract能明顯提高生物質含量,其生物質含量為540.02 mg/g。在一般成分分析方面,菌絲體之粗蛋白及粗纖維含量明顯較舞菇小麥及小麥高,其含量分別為28.43及2.06%。在呈味方面,以舞菇小麥之總可溶性糖含量最高,為231.23 mg/g,菌絲體次之,其值為88.59 mg/g,小麥則為28.83 mg/g。而游離胺基酸部分,舞菇小麥以苯丙胺酸(14.12 mg/g)及精胺酸(12.60 mg/g)含量最高,小麥經固態發酵後,總游離胺基酸含量明顯提高,可見固態發酵能有效提高小麥之呈味價值。核苷酸方面,總核苷酸含量依序為舞菇菌絲體(7.02 mg/g)、舞菇小麥(3.59 mg/g)和小麥(0.56 mg/g)。生理活性方面,舞菇菌絲之麥角固醇含量較高,其值為4.60 mg/g。小麥經舞菇固態發酵後其麥角固醇含量提高,由無提升為2.38 mg/g。多醣含量方面依序為菌絲體(33.46 mg/g)、小麥(30.06 mg/g)及舞菇小麥(18.04 mg/g)。而β-(1,3)-D-glucan含量以菌絲體較高,為0.65 mg/g;針對α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性方面,整體而言以菌絲體抑制活性較好,舞菇小麥次之;若以萃取方法來看,則以乙醇萃取抑制活性最好,其抑制率依序為菌絲(90.08%)、舞菇小麥(70.08%)及小麥(39.21%)。菌絲體、舞菇小麥及小麥之熱水萃取物在抗氧化力方面,於20 mg/g時依序為小麥(85.43%)>菌絲體(73.92%)>舞菇小麥(57.26%)。在還原力方面,菌絲體、舞菇小麥及小麥之熱水萃取物在20 mg/mL時,分別為0.78、1.05及0.19。在捕捉DPPH自由基能力上,舞菇小麥及小麥在20 mg/mL時,捕捉DPPH自由基能力分別為75.13及71.74%。在螯合亞鐵能力上,濃度在10 mg/mL時,依序為舞菇小麥(99.04%)>小麥(82.40%)>菌絲體(56.77%)。
菌絲體、舞菇小麥及小麥之乙醇萃取物在抗氧化力方面,於20 mg/mL時依序為小麥(101.94%)>舞菇小麥(98.42%)>菌絲體(70.56%)。在還原力上,菌絲體、舞菇小麥及小麥之乙醇萃取物在20 mg/mL時,分別為0.58、1.13及0.57。在清除DPPH自由基能力上,於10 mg/mL時,依序為菌絲體(95.60%)>舞菇小麥(95.51%)>小麥(92.75%)。在螯合亞鐵能力方面,當濃度20 mg/mL時,依序為菌絲體(94.81%)>舞菇小麥(88.71%)>小麥(85.94%)。在抗氧化成分分析上,總酚類化合物是所有試驗樣品中含量最多的天然抗氧化成分。配合一次一因子之結果,發現所探討的因子中以碳源(lactose)、氮源(malt extract)及溫度對固態發酵舞菇之影響具有顯著性差異。將三獨立變數配合反應曲面法之設計進一步探討各因子間之交互作用。其結果顯示此反應曲面模式之信賴度高達99.99%,檢定系數值為0.9919,而Lack of fit之P值為0.2480及變異系數為5.2016%,綜合以上結果,此三元二次數學模式是成立的,而在等高線圖中與反應曲面圖中可清楚看到最適點的產生。綜合以上所述可知小麥經固態發酵為舞菇小麥後,可提高營養、呈味、生理活性之物質及抗氧化性質。因此,利用本實驗之結果即可開發出具有營養、機能及具有保健性的小麥產品,使得小麥在利用上又多了另一種選擇。

Grifola frondosa, called maitake in Japanese, is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Recently, researchers that maitake possessed several physiological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency and immuno- enhancing activities. However, most of researches mainly focused on liquid culture. The study conducted herein was to investigate optimal incubation conditions for solid-state fermentation, using one factor at a time method. The objectives of this study were to investigate the proximate composition, taste components, physicochemical properties, physiologically active components, antioxidant properties of mycelia, Grifola frondosa fermented wheat (GFW) and wheat. To investigate the effect of incubation conditions on biomass production for response surface methodology. Results showed that optimal conditions for plate of Grifola frondosa mycelia were temperature at 30ºC, initial pH at 5.0, and lactose as carbon source, malt extract as nitrogen source, KH2PO4 as mineral source. For solid-state fermentation of Grifola frondosa was wheat as medium, moisture content at 60%, temperature at 30 ºC and incubation 14 days (509.11 mg/g), lactose as carbon source (573.00 mg/g), malt extract as nitrogen source (540.02 mg/g). Accordingly, optimal incubation conditions obtained above were used to mass produce mycelia from solid state fermentation. With regard to proximate composition, crude protein (28.43%) and crude fiber (2.06%) contents of mycelia were significantly higher than GFW and wheat. With regard to taste characteristics, total soluble sugar contents were in the descending order of: GFW (231.23 mg/g) > mycelia (88.59 mg/g) > wheat (28.83 mg/g). Free amino acid contents of GFW were as most of phenylalanine (14.12 mg/g) and arginine (12.60 mg/g). Total nucleotide contents were in the descending order of: mycelia (7.02 mg/g) > GFW (3.59 mg/g) > wheat (0.56 mg/g). For physiologically active components, ergosterol of mycelia was 4.60 mg/g. Wheat by mycelia after its solid-state fermentation, ergosterol content increase from non-upgraded to 2.38 mg/g. Polysaccharide content in descending order of: mycelia (33.46 mg/g) > wheat (30.06 mg/g) and GFW (18.04 mg/g). The β- (1,3)-D-glucan content of mycelia (0.65 mg/g) was the best. For inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase, mycelia was better than GFW. If focus method of extraction, while ethanol extract was better than hot water extract, inhibitory activity in descending order of mycelia (90.08%) > GFW (70.08%) > wheat (39.21%). The antioxidant activity of hot water extracts were in the descending order: wheat (85.43%) > mycelia (73.92%) > GFW (57.26%). The reducing powers of hot water extracts were 0.78、1.05 and 0.19 at 20 mg/mL for mycelia, GFW and wheat, respectively. The hot water extracts from GFW and wheat showed an great scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals at 20 mg/mL (75.13 and 71.74%, respectively). At 10 mg/mL, chelating abilities of the hot water extracts on ferrous ions were in the descending order: GFW (99.04%) > wheat (82.40%) > mycelia (56.77%). For mycelia, GFW and wheat, at 20 mg/mL, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts were 70.56, 98.42 and 101.94%. The reducing powers of ethanolic extracts were 0.58、1.13 and 0.57 at 20 mg/mL for mycelia, GFW and wheat, respectively. At 10 mg/mL, scavenging abilities of ethanolic extracts on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were in the descending order: mycelia (95.60%) > GFW (95.51%) > wheat (92.75%). The chelating abilities of the ethanolic extracts, at 20 mg/mL, on ferrous ions were in the descending order: mycelia (94.81%) > GFW (88.71%) > wheat (85.94%). Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in all samples.
With the result from one factor at a time method, carbon and nitrogen sources and temperature were a significant of biomass on solid state fermentation. This object of this study was to show the interaction of three independent variables. The coefficient of determination (R2) values for biomass and the lack of fit were 0.9919 and 0.2480, respectively. The optimal point from the 3D response surface plots and the contour plot were existence.
According, the application of the information obtain herein can develop a new wheat product with high nutritional, high function and health, and increase the consumption of the wheat product.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50878
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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