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|標題:||Quality Analysis and Establishment of Safety Control System for Fermented Milk
|關鍵字:||Fermented milk;發酵乳;Hygienic conditions;Clean room;Polystyrene;Polyethylene;Hazard analysis;Safety Control System;衛生管控;無塵室;聚苯乙烯;聚乙烯;危害分析;安全管制系統||出版社:||食品科學系||摘要:||
發酵乳之製程為：原料經過 HTST 殺菌，進行發酵、充填、包裝後即得成品，可見發酵後即不再經殺菌過程，因此在後段製程中，若無良好衛生管控，將易造成產品劣變。本研究先針對參與台灣區乳品工業同業公會之 36 家乳品工廠進行問卷調查，找出影響發酵乳製品品質之因素，再從作業環境設計、人員手部衛生、包材衛生、機械設備清洗等方面探討，期能進一步改善發酵乳工廠之衛生管理制度與製品品質。所得結果如下：
1. 管路設備以熱水殺菌或過氧化醋酸殺菌對產品品質影響不大，環境裝設空調控制溫溼度時，所製造產品之品質可減少50 %不良率。
2. 乳品工廠在 1,000 級清潔度要求之無塵室環境下，空氣中浮游菌數可減少 2.49 log CFU/m3；在 10,000 及 100,000 級作業環境中，受人員及機械等各種因素影響，整個大空間設計中高效率空氣濾網 ( high efficiency particulate air filter；HEPA ) 對環境之浮游菌過濾效果差異不大。
3. 發酵乳產品使用聚乙烯瓶 ( polyethylene；PE瓶 )或聚苯乙烯瓶( polystyrene；PS瓶 ) 容器時，耐真空度效果皆可達 40 cmHg 以上，較紙盒為高(僅為 5.33 cmHg)，密合性亦較紙盒好，此乃目前發酵乳產品仍以 PE 瓶或 PS 瓶裝為主的要因。
As the standard of living improves in Taiwan, people's health consciousness increases. The public pay much attention to their own and family's health day by day. On dairy industry, most products have been turned to the requirement of functionality. The consumption of fermented milk products increases and the product forms become full of variety.
A fermented milk product is made via pasteurization of raw milk, fermentation, filling, sealing, and packaging. Pasteurization process is no longer undergone after fermentation. Deterioration of the milk products probably occurs during the processes after fermentation, unless the hygienic conditions are well controlled. In this study, questionnaires were designed to investigate the factors that affect fermented milk products in 36 factories with slightly good scale. The objective was to set up a system available for management of hygiene and improvement of product quality of fermented milk factories from the view points including design of work sites, hygiene of operators' hands and packing materials, and cleaning of facilities. The results obtained were as follows.
1. Pasteurization of pipe line and facilities executed with hot water or peroxyacetic acid was not significantly different on quality of final products. The harmful percentage was decreased to 50% by well control. Therefore, good quality products could be obtained by installing air conditioner in work sites.
2. Total counts floating in the air decreased 2.49 log CFU/m3 for the work regions which cleanness was required at 1,000 clean room. On work regions only required at 10,000 or 100,000 clean room, the installed HEPA (High efficiency particulate air filter) did not display cleansing power due to the hygiene control of operators and facilities were not strict.
3. Vacuum tolerance for the fermented milk products packed in PE (polyethylene) or PS (polystyrene) vessels reached 40 cmHg. Besides vacuum tolerance was higher than tetra brick (only 5.33 cmHg), the sealing property was also better. That can be the reason PE or PS vessels are used for present market products.
4. Hazard analysis was done from raw materials to the final products and a “Safety Control System” was established for a factory which produces fermented milk products. The conclusions can be available to improve manufacturing processes and as a guidance of quality control for a practical fermented milk factory.
|Appears in Collections:||食品暨應用生物科技學系|
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