Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50969
標題: β-環狀糊精(β-CD)移除豬油中膽固醇之最適條件及β-CD再生方法之研 究
Optimization of the Removal Cholesterol from Lard by β- cyclodextrin (β-CD) and the Method for β-CD Regeneration
作者: 陳健人
Chen, Chien-Jen
關鍵字: cholestrol;膽固醇;lard;regeneration;豬油;β-環狀糊精;再生;β-cyclodextrin
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: 
摘要
b-環狀糊精(b-cyclodextrin, b-CD)是由七個葡萄糖分子以a-( 1, 4 )
鍵結所構成之環狀分子,其分子中心可容納許多物質而形成複合物 ( 包
括膽固醇 )。本研究即利用反應曲面法 ( response surface
methodology , RSM ) 探討b-CD移除豬油中膽固醇的最適條件、再
生b-CD的方法、豬油精 製過程與膽固醇去除之結合及經b-CD處理後
品質上的差異。 由RSM的實驗結果顯示,b-CD用量
及攪拌速度為影響本實驗之重要因子,而處 理時間對本實驗的影響
則較不顯著。其中以4%b-CD,450rpm,攪拌一小時的 條件下的膽固
醇去除率達90% 以上,並可達82% 以上之豬油回收率。豬油經 b-CD
處理後膽固醇含量與酸價明顯降低 ( p<0.05 ),而碘價、折射率及脂肪
酸 含量比率則無明顯變化 ( p>0.05 )。b-CD再生的實驗中,以溶劑萃
取無法將 大部分的油從b-CD中萃取出;加熱的處理方式可有效的再
生b-CD,其再移除 膽固醇的能力隨著b-CD再生次數增加而減弱。經
加熱再生的處理,於再生五 次後仍有70%以上的膽固醇移除率;若
於加熱時加上攪拌的再生方式,可減少 處理的時間,於再生五次後
仍有70%以上的膽固醇移除率,加熱時間延長可 回收較多的b-CD,
加熱再生次數增加其b-CD殘存量逐次減少。經由掃描式 電子顯微
鏡的觀察亦可得知加熱是能夠將b-CD與吸附的豬油分離。精製過
的豬油其膽固醇較易被b-CD移除。經脫色過後的豬油在4%b-CD及450 rpm
攪拌一小時的條件即可達到90%以上的膽固醇移除率,且經過脫色後之豬
油 其安定性明顯的比脫色前來得高 ( p<0.05 )。冬化的過程不但
可降低豬油 中膽固醇的含量,並可減少飽和脂肪酸的含量。
添加BHA、BHT及TBHQ等抗氧化劑或經過b-CD處理後豬油的發煙點明顯上升
( p<0.05 ),混合添加BHA及BHT對發煙點升高具加成效果。若回添游離脂
肪酸 ( oleic acid ) 及膽固醇於經b-CD處理過的豬油中,其發煙點
亦明顯下降 ( p<0.05 )。因此添加抗氧化劑或膽固醇及游離脂肪
酸的去除有助於豬油發 煙點的提昇,膽固醇與游離脂肪酸可能為影
響豬油發煙點的重要因子 b-CD處理過的低膽固醇豬油,其氧
化安定性有些許的下降 ( p<0.05 ),攪拌 速度越大氧化安定性越差
,而b-CD濃度及處理時間與氧化安定性之間並無顯著 差異 ( p>0.05
)。至於在烹調風味的實驗中,由三角試驗的結果得知在氣味、 風味及
整體性中分別有11、16及14位品評員能正確挑出不同的樣品,但其皆未
達到20位答對的標準,因此b-CD處理過的豬油,和未處理豬油之烹調風味
上並 無顯著性差異 ( p>0.05 )。
關鍵詞:豬油、膽固醇、b-環狀糊精、再生、發煙點、氧化安定性。

Abstract
b-cyclodextrin ( b-CD ) is a cyclic oligosaccharide composed of
a-(1, 4) -linkages of seven glucose unit members. b-CD has
a cavity in the center of the molecule and has the
capability of forming an inclusion complex with various
compounds, including cholesterol. This study objectives
involved investigating the optimization of the removing
cholesterol from lard by using response surface
methodlogy ( RSM ), the method for b-CD regeneration, the
combination of refining process with removing
cholesterol, and the changes in quality of lard after treating
with b-CD. The results of RSM experiment showed that the
most important factors were b-CD concentration and
stirring rate, but the stirring time was not the
significant variable in this experiment. Ninety percentage of
cholesterol in lard was removed with 4% b-CD by stirring at
450 rpm for 1 h. The contents of cholesterol and acid
value of lard markedly decreased after treated with b-CD
( p<0.05 ); however, iodine value, sefractive index and
fatty acid content of lard showed no obvious change ( p>0.05 ).
In b-CD rege neration test, the solvent could not extract most
of oil from b-CD after reacted with lard. However,
heating treatment was an effective method to regenerate b-
CD. The b-CD still could remove 70% cholesterol from lard
after regeneration for five times by heating treatment. The
operating time for regeneration of b-CD can be reduced
by stirring during heating treatment. The recovery b-CD
can be increased by extending the heating time; the b-CD
residues decreased with the increasing of heating
regeneration times. The results of scanning electron microscope
( SEM ) experiment showed that b-CD could be separated
absorbed lard by heating treatment. The cholesterol in
refined lard is more easily removed by b-CD. Over 90%
cholesterol in bleached lard was removed with 4% b-CD and
stirred at 450 rpm for 1 h. Winterizing process not only
decreased the content of cholesterol but also the
saturated fatty acids in lard. The smoke point of lard
increased obviously by adding butylated
hydroxyanisole ( BHA ), butylated hydroxytoluene ( BHT ) and
tert-butylhydroquinone ( TBHQ ) or removing cholesterol with b-
CD ( p<0.05 ). Synergistic effect in increase
smoke point of lard observed when BHA ( 100 ppm ) was
mixed with BHT ( 100 ppm ) . The smoke point decreased
obviously by adding cholesterol and free fatty acid back to
lard treated with b-CD. Therefore, the smoke point of lard
increased on adding antioxidants or by removing
cholesterol and free fatty acid. Cholesterol and fatty
acid were demonstrated to be the parameters affecting
the smoke point of lard.
The oxidative stability of lard decreased slightly after treated
with b-CD ( p<0.05 ), but it showed no significant
difference ( p>0.05 ) between b-CD concentration,
treating time and oxidative stability. In the
triangle test, there are 11, 16 and 14 panels can distinguish
the test sample on flavor, odor and overall difference,
respectively. This result did not meet the standard
that needs 20 panels with correct answer. Therefore,
there is no significant difference ( p>0.05 ) in
cooking flavor for b-CD treated lard compared with untreated
lard.
Key Words: Lard, cholesterol, b-cyclodextrin, regeneration,
smoke point, oxidative stability.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50969
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.