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The effect of the ammonium salts on the removal efficiency of NO, SO2 and fly ash in simulated flue gas
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本研究以含浸法製備CuO/AC觸媒進行反應，研究結果顯示，流體化觸媒反應器對於（1）單一污染物的控制，當溫度在250 ℃時，去除效率分別為：NO：58％、SO2：78％、飛灰：79％；當反應氣體組成為（2）NO+SO2或NO+飛灰時，觸媒對NO的去除效率會下降，可能原因為反應過程中飛灰或是生成之銨鹽阻塞觸媒孔洞或是覆蓋住觸媒之活性相，導致去除效率下降；於不同反應溫度下，（3）反應氣體組成為NO+SO2 +飛灰時，當溫度於250 ℃時可得較佳的去除效率，分別為：NO：53％、SO2：95％、飛灰：80％;於不同操作時間下溫度在250 ℃時，當操作時間大於180分鐘時，可發現去除效率隨時間增加而有明顯的下降趨勢。在銨鹽生成的探討中，可發現當流體化觸媒反應器中之觸媒表面生成之銨鹽越多時會降低污染物的去除效率; NO和SO2會與反應器中之還原劑NH3於觸媒表面上反應生成(NH4)2SO4、NH4HSO4、NH4NO3，同時觸媒表面之銨鹽亦將隨著反應時間增加而增多。
In this study, a fluidized-bed catalyst reactor was applied for the simultaneous removal of NO, SO2, and fly ash in simulated flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Moreover, the formation of the ammonium salts was also studied. The objects of this study included: (1) study the effects of reaction temperatures and reaction concentrations on the removal efficiency in the presence of one kind of pollutant; (2) study the effect of reaction temperatures on the removal efficiency in the presence of both NO and SO2 or NO and fly ash; (3) study the effect of reaction temperatures on the removal efficiency in the presence of three kinds of pollutants (NO+SO2+fly ash); (4) study the effects of reaction times on the removal efficiency in the presence of three kinds of pollutants; (5) study the formation of the ammonium salts in the different reaction conditions. The catalysts were characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller(BET), X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), and Ion Chromatography(IC).
In the experiment, CuO/AC catalyst was prepared by the impregnation for catalytic reaction. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency over a fluidized-bed catalyst reactor in the presence of one kind of pollutant was 58%, 78%, and 79% for NO, SO2, and fly ash, separately. NO removal efficiency was decreased due to the covered active sites or blocked pores by fly ash or formed ammonium salts in the presence of both NO and SO2 or NO and fly ash. In the presence of three kinds of pollutants, the removal efficiency was studied as a function of reaction temperature. The good catalytic activity was carried out at 250℃, and the removal efficiency was 53%, 95%, and 80% for NO, SO2, and fly ash, separately. In order to study the effect of operating time on the pollutants removal, the reaction temperature was set at 250℃. The results indicated that all pollutant removal efficiencies were obviously decreased with operating time increased after 180min. In the study of formation of the ammonium salts, the experiment results indicated that the pollutant removal efficiency was decreased with a large number of the ammonium salts formed on the catalyst surface in a fluidized-bed catalyst reactor. In the catalyst reactor, ammonia may react with NO and SO2, and then the ammonia salts, (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4 and NH4NO3, were accumulated on the catalyst surface. Furthermore, the number of formation of the ammonium salts was increased with operating time increased.
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