Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51136
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisor金安兒zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorAn-Erl Kingen_US
dc.contributor.author鄭先萌zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Shien-Minen_US
dc.date2001zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T08:53:45Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T08:53:45Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/51136-
dc.description.abstract若要將高甲氧基果膠凝膠製成凝膠製品,需要在高糖(>65﹪)、高酸(pH2.7~3.4)的環境下方可成膠。為了有益人體健康且不破壞果膠食品的口味,降低蔗糖的使用量以減少食品熱量的確有其必要性。低甲氧基果膠主要是利用二價陽離子與羧基形成架橋作用以造成凝膠,與高甲氧基果膠的凝膠機制不同,也因此可用其取代高甲氧基果膠,藉以減少蔗糖的使用量。因此本研究主要是在不同的果膠濃度、pH值、蔗糖濃度以及氯化鈣濃度之情況下,將其製成凝膠樣品,並透過凝膠強度、水活性、離水率、Hunter L,a,b值以及Instron質地輪廓分析(TPA)等物理特性測定方法所測出的數值,以四因子三層階的反應曲面法(RSM)來探討、評估最適的凝膠條件及其在應用上之可能性。從試驗的結果得知,低甲氧基果膠及氯化鈣之濃度對於絕大多數的物理性狀均有較顯著的影響,是低甲氧果膠凝膠的關鍵因子。蔗糖濃度雖然影響力遠不如上述二因子,但卻也會對樣品物理性質有相當的作用,亦可說是重要的助凝因子。由與前人所得之高甲氧基果膠的結果作比較可以發現:低甲氧基果膠的凝膠強度、硬度較小,水活性與彈性較大,但是結構較不穩定、易離水且保藏不易。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractHigh concentration of sucrose(>65﹪)and low pH value(2.7~3.4)are required for the production of pectin gelling products by using HMP(high methoxyl pectin). However, lower sucrose concentration is favorable in food production since it could lead to the reduction of calorie and benefit human health. The gelation of LMP(low methoxyl pectin) is formed by the cross-linking of divalent metal ions. There is a possibility to use LMP to replace HMP in order to reduce the sucrose content in pectin gel food products. The goal of this study was to produce pectin gel with low-sugar contents by using the conditions of different LMP concentration, sucrose concentration, pH value and calcium chloride concentration(CCD). Gel strength, water activity, syneresis, Hunter L, a, b value and TPA(texture profile analysis) values of gel samples were determined , and data were analyzed with a four-variable and three-level design by using response surface methodology(RSM). It could be found from the results that the concentration of CCD and LMP were the critical factors in LMP gelation. Although the effect of sucrose was weaker than CCD and LMP, it was also an important co-solute to help the gelation of LMP. Compared with HMP gel, LMP gel had higher springiness, water activity but lower hardness, gel strength, and fracturability. In addition, LMP possessed unstable structure and quality. Therefore, its application to food processing still needs further research.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents壹、前言--------------------------------------------- 1 貳、文獻整理----------------------------------------- 3 一、膠、膠體食品以及凝膠作用---------------------- 3 二、果膠與低甲氧基果膠---------------------------- 9 三、肥胖所造成的健康問題與低熱量食品開發的必要性- 16 四、食品的物性測定與質地輪廓分析----------------- 18 五、反應曲面法----------------------------------- 22 參、研究目的---------------------------------------- 27 肆、材料與方法-------------------------------------- 28 一、試驗材料------------------------------------- 28 二、試驗方法------------------------------------- 28 (1)低甲氧基果膠凝膠特性的測定--------------- 28 a.低甲氧基果膠凝膠的製備------------------ 28 b.質地輪廓分析之測定---------------------- 29 c.凝膠強度測定---------------------------- 29 d.Hunter L, a, b值之測定------------------ 30 e.離水率測定------------------------------ 30 f.水活性測定------------------------------ 30 (2)低甲氧基果膠的反應因子分析--------------- 30 伍、結果與討論--------------------------------------- 35 一、物理性狀分析值的初步整理------------------------- 35 二、反應曲面模式分析--------------------------------- 42 (1)凝膠強度的探討---------------------------- 55 (2)水活性的探討------------------------------ 59 (3)硬度的探討-------------------------------- 63 (4)脆度的探討-------------------------------- 68 (5)凝聚度的探討------------------------------ 68 (6)彈性度的探討------------------------------ 76 (7)附著度的探討------------------------------ 80 (8)咀嚼度的探討------------------------------ 80 (9)綜合評斷分析------------------------------ 84 陸、結論 柒、中文摘要 捌、英文摘要 玖、參考文獻 圖表目錄 (表次) (頁次) 表一、膠在食品工業上的用途-------------------------------------------- 5 表二、膠依其功用在工業使用的百分率-------------------------------- 6 表三、膠在美國的消耗狀況----------------------------------------------- 8 表四、日本某公司出品隻高甲氧基果膠的商品種類及用途------- 15 表五、反應曲面分析之四變數、四層階試驗設計------------------- 26 表六、四因子三層階反應曲面設計中的操作條件變數及其階層- 32 表七、低甲氧基果膠膠體之物理性質的試驗數據------------------- 36 表八、低甲氧基果膠膠體之物理性質的試驗數據------------------- 37 表九、物理性質的反應曲面迴歸模式之變方分析------------------- 39 表十、物理性質的各個反應因子之變方分析------------------------- 40 表十一、描述物理性質之反應值和加工條件因子間的二次多項式之迴歸係數---------------------------------------------------------------- 43 (圖次) (頁次) 圖一、高甲氧基果膠凝膠之接合區----------------------------------------- 10 圖二、高甲氧基果膠的凝膠構造-------------------------------------------- 11 圖三、低甲氧基果膠的凝膠構造-------------------------------------------- 12 圖四、質地輪廓分析----------------------------------------------------------- 21 圖五、實施反應曲面法的步驟流程圖------------------------------------- 24 圖六、用來執行RSM迴歸的SAS程式----------------------------------- 33 圖七、實驗操作之流程-------------------------------------------------------- 34 圖八、低甲氧基果膠濃度和pH值對膠體凝膠強度(g × mm)之等性狀曲線圖(蔗糖濃度:50﹪)------------------------------------- 56 圖九、低甲氧基果膠濃度和pH值對膠體凝膠強度(g × mm)之等性狀曲線圖(蔗糖濃度:35﹪)------------------------------------ 57 圖十、低甲氧基果膠濃度和pH值對膠體凝膠強度(g × mm)之等性狀曲線圖(蔗糖濃度:20﹪)--------------------------------------- 58 圖十一、蔗糖和CCD濃度對膠體水活性(﹪)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度0.375﹪)------------------------------------------- 60 圖十二、蔗糖和CCD濃度對膠體水活性(﹪)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度0.325﹪)------------------------------------------- 61 圖十三、蔗糖和CCD濃度對膠體水活性(﹪)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度0.275﹪)------------------------------------------- 62 圖十四、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體硬度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:4.0)------------------------------------------------------- 65 圖十五、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體硬度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:3.3)------------------------------------------------------- 66 圖十六、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體硬度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:2.6)------------------------------------------------------- 67 圖十七、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體脆度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:4.0)-------------------------------------------------------- 69 圖十八、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體脆度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:3.3)------------------------------------------------------- 70 圖十九、低甲氧基果膠和CCD之濃度對膠體脆度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:2.6)--------------------------------------------------------- 71 圖二十、pH值和CCD濃度對膠體凝聚度之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度:0.375﹪)--------------------------------------------------- 73 圖二十一、pH值和CCD濃度對膠體凝聚度之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度:0.325﹪)----------------------------------------------- 74 圖二十二、pH值和CCD濃度對膠體凝聚度之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度:0.275﹪)----------------------------------------------- 75 圖二十三、LMP和蔗糖濃度對膠體彈性度之等性狀曲線圖(pH:4.0)----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77 圖二十四、LMP和蔗糖濃度對膠體彈性度之等性狀曲線圖(pH:3.3)----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78 圖二十五、LMP和蔗糖濃度對膠體彈性度之等性狀曲線圖(pH:2.6)----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79 圖二十六、pH值和蔗糖濃度對膠體附著度(mJ)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃----------------------------------------------------------- 81 圖二十七、pH值和蔗糖濃度對膠體附著度(mJ)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度:0.325﹪)---------------------------------------- 82 圖二十八、pH值和蔗糖濃度對膠體附著度(mJ)之等性狀曲線圖(低甲氧基果膠濃度:0.275﹪)---------------------------------------- 83 圖二十九、CCD和低甲氧基果膠濃度對膠體咀嚼度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:4.0)------------------------------------------------------ 85 圖三十、CCD和低甲氧基果膠濃度對膠體咀嚼度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:3.3)--------------------------------------------------------- 86 圖三十一、CCD和低甲氧基果膠濃度對膠體咀嚼度(N)之等性狀曲線圖(pH:2.6)------------------------------------------------------ 87zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher食品科學系zh_TW
dc.subjectlow methoxyl pectinen_US
dc.subject低甲氧基果膠zh_TW
dc.subjectgelationen_US
dc.subjecttexture profile analysisen_US
dc.subjectlow-calorie fooden_US
dc.subjectresponse surface methodologyen_US
dc.subject凝膠zh_TW
dc.subject質地輪廓分析zh_TW
dc.subject低熱量食品zh_TW
dc.subject反應曲面法zh_TW
dc.title低甲氧基果膠凝膠作用因子之探討zh_TW
dc.titleEffects of the Gelling Conditions on the Gelation of Low Methoxyl Pectinen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.grantfulltextnone-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.languageiso639-1en_US-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系
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