Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5115
標題: 模擬厭氧消化反應槽添加焚化爐底灰/飛灰於市鎮固體廢棄物之菌群結構分析
Microbial community study of municipal solid waste incinerator anaerobic digestor adding municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash/fly ash
作者: 蘇銘顥
Su, Ming Hao
關鍵字: 厭氧消化反應;都市固體廢棄物;焚化爐灰燼;螢光原位雜交法
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 
隨著科技文明的進步,都市固體廢棄物也隨之逐年增加,台灣地區由於地狹人稠,掩埋場土地取得不易,因此以焚化爐處理這些市鎮固體廢棄物已成為較佳的替代選擇方案之一。然而垃圾燃燒並非最終處置,垃圾燃燒後所產生之灰燼仍為原重量之十分之一,若以現今台灣地區19座垃圾焚化爐每日垃圾處理量900公噸之垃圾處理量進行換算,每天將會有1800公噸左右之灰燼產生,因此灰燼之處理及處置是目前最應首要解決之問題。
近來有研究證實這些灰燼可以做為掩埋場實地覆土的來源,並且對於整個掩埋場的厭氧消化有著正面的助益,但尚未有相關研究於灰燼對厭氧消化之微生物影響,所以本研究希望藉由螢光原位雜合技術調查不同比例灰燼與人造垃圾基質共同厭氧消化時之菌相結構變化,並配合反應槽表現及揮發酸之測定,期能瞭解添加灰燼對厭氧消化微生物之影響。
從生物產氣結果發現,在焚化爐底灰添加比例為100 g/l對厭氧消化作用有促進之效果,可加速微生物之生長代謝,並由甲烷菌群之比例發現,甲烷化效果優於空白組;而由添加之兩種焚化爐飛灰比例—10 g/l和20 g/l之產氣結果來看,相較於空白組,此兩種飛灰添加比例皆對厭氧消化作用有促進之效果,刺激厭氧消化微生物之活性,使消化反應加速進行,並由甲烷菌群之含量推知甲烷化效果優於空白組。
另外,在甲烷菌群之分佈比例變化發現,hydrogenotrophic methanogens在添加灰燼的環境所佔總菌群的比例高於aceticlastic methanogens,特別尤以Methanobacteriales為最明顯,表示在添加灰燼的環境裡應有較為旺盛的產氫活動。以及會和甲烷菌競爭共同基質(H2和acetate)之硫酸鹽還原菌(SRB)含量明顯低於總甲烷菌群之含量,亦即在此環境下,甲烷菌群可佔有優勢,SRB之存在並不會影響厭氧消化作用進行。
綜合上述,以焚化爐底灰和飛灰做為掩埋場之覆土確實是可行之辦法,只要適當控制添加的比例,對加速厭氧消化作用之進行會有正面助益,並且可提升甲烷化之效率,有助於提高甲烷氣回收之經濟效益,提供未來對國內焚化廠灰燼掩埋處理生物資源化之另一項選擇管道。

Currently, a large amount of municipal solid waste is produced through various activities. Landfill has been practiced as the major treatment method in Taiwan. However, this treatment method is extremely constrained to the condiotions that the land is very scarce and the population density is very high in Taiwan. Thus, municipal solid waste incinerator is inevitably chosen as an effectively alternative for MSW treatment. Furthermore, the residues generated from the incinerator still remain 10 % of initial MSW weight and need to be treated further to prevent the secondary pollution. Generally, residues of incinerator are composed of bottom ash and fly ash.
Recently, some researches were confirmed that these ashes could be used as a soil cover in landfill and had positive advantage for anaerobic digestion in landfill. However, we know very little regarding the microbial communities in such treatment method. Therefore, molecular technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to investigate microbial community in this study. Combined with the parameter of digestors and VFA concentration, the effect of the microorganisms in anaerobic digestion was explored.
According to the result of biogas production amount, the bottom ash addition in the ash/refuse ratio of 100 g/l and the fly ash addition in the ash/refuse ratio of 10 g/l and 20 g/l showed a beneficial effects on anaerobic digestion and accelerated the metaboism of microoranisms and methanogenesis was better than contorl reactors.
It was also shown that the proportion of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in all microorganisms were more abundant than aceticlastic methanogens, in which Methanobacterials were dominant hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This indicated that there were vigorous hydrogen production in the reactor adding ashes. And the proportion of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) which can compete common substate (H2 and acetate) with methanogens was lower than methanogens, suggesting that SRB would not outcompete methanogens in such evironment and the existence of SRB won't effect the process of anaerobic digestion.
If addition of ashes in landfill was optimum, incinerator bottom ash and fly ash could be used as a soil cover. It had positive beneficial effect to stimunate the process of anaerobic digestion and it could increase the efficiency of methanogenesis. Therefore, the method of codigestion of MSW and ashes was demonstrated a efficicent way for biological resouces.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5115
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

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