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標題: 不織布膜離生物反應器處理效率與微生物族群分析之研究
Studies of Treatment Efficiency and Microbial Population Analysis or Nonwoven Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR)
作者: 林慧玲
Lin, Hui-Ling
關鍵字: 膜離生物反應器;分子生物技術;重力梯度離心;Membrane Bio-Reactor(MBR)、molecular biology technology、density gradient centrifugation
出版社: 環境工程學系
膜離生物反應器(Membrane Bio-Reactor, MBR)為近代廢污水處理技術中結合薄膜分離與生物反應槽所發展出高效率之生物處理技術;相較於傳統活性污泥系統,膜離生物反應系統具有污泥濃度高(Biomass)、反應槽體積小、污泥停留時間較長等特性。而BioNET系統則是在反應槽中添加具有極大之比表面積(m2/m3)之擔體,藉以培養特殊微生物,以提高處理槽去除污染物之功能。BioMF系統則是藉由BioNET擔體與不織布薄膜結合,可有效提昇薄膜之通量。應用新的分子生物技術,來建立各種工業廢水微生物系統的微生物組合並鑑定出優勢菌種,已成為生物處理程序之必要手段,不僅可以瞭解微生物族群結構與空間分佈,更能在生物處理系統發生異常變化時,迅速擬定出操作上的因應對策,但目前在MBR反應槽相關研究上分生技術應用仍屬起步階段。因此,本研究利用分子生物技術、重力梯度離心(Density gradient centrifugation)等方法評估膜離生物反應器之處理效率與探討微生物族群之消長,以瞭解不織布膜離生物反應器中固液相微生物種類分佈、處理效率以及與生物性積垢的關係。研究結果顯示以重力離心區分污泥之浮力比重的分法,可協助分析複雜的微生物族群,且具有放大訊號的效果。以不織布來處理廢水是可行的,在本研究中三種膜離生物反應器COD去除率高達95~99%,均可達到相當好之出流水水質,系統中主要負責有機物分解作用的微生物及可能與生物膜形成有關的微生物種類皆成功地以分生方法進行分析鑑定,除此之外,在第一試程包覆樹脂棉之PP薄膜上生物膜中鑑定出一株Epsilon Proteobacteria,第二試程AS2薄膜上生物膜中鑑定出一株Verrucomicrobium spinosum,推論此兩株菌可能與生物性積垢有關。

Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) is a high efficiency biological treatment technology which combines membrane separation technology and bio-reactor technology. The advantages of MBR comparing with traditional activated sludge system are higher biomass concentration, smaller reactor volume and longer sludge retention time. Another type of reactor was designed by adding BioNET carriers. These carriers of BioNET have extremely large specific surface area (m2/m3) for cultivating special microorganisms to enhance the treatment efficiency. BioMF system is a combination of BioNET and non-woven membrane and have been proven to be able to promote flux of the membrane. It is necessary to applying newly molecular biology technology to identify microorganisms in the wastewater treatment system. It helps not only on understanding the microorganism culture distribution but also can finding the possible solution when the system is under unusual situation. However, applying molecular biology technology on MBR system is rare in the literatures. This study attempted to apply molecular biology technology and density gradient centrifugation methods on evaluating the treatment efficiency of MBR and investigating the in shifts of microorganisms. The distributions of microorganism in the reactor, treatment efficiency and relationship of fouling were successfully studied.
The result indicates that the density gradient centrifugation method can be helpful on analyzing complex microorganism systems. It is feasible to use non-woven membrane to treat wastewater. The COD removal efficiency of three different MBRs tested in this study is between 95 to 99 %. By using molecular method, microorganism community possibly involving with COD degradation and biofouling were successfully identified. From the first stage experiment, PP membrane covered with resin, an Epsilon Proteobacteria was identified. On the other hand, a Verrucomicrobium spinosum was identified from the AS2 membrane in the second stage experiment. It is possible that these two microorganisms could be involved with the forming of biofouling.
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