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Studies on the development of natural food preservative
With the increasing of the market of food preservatives and the awareness of heath, development of natural food preservatives has become a trend. Nineteen Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities in this study. The results showed that Melastoma Cadidum D. Don (MCCD) extract exhibited strong antimicrobial activity and having good taste; Bletilla striata (BS) extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and having light color. Both MCDD and BS had potential to be acted as food preservatives. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) (0.02-1.28% (w/v)) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) (0.08-2.56%) of MCDD extracts were lower than BS extracts. After heat treatment of MCDD extracts at 70, 100 or 121℃, the antimicrobial activities of the extracts weren't influenced. The antimicrobial abilities were also stable at the range of pH 5-8.
Applications of MCDD extracts on the food model systems, such as fresh pork, steamed rice and wet noodles to evaluate the abilities of MCDD extracts on the microorganic control. The results indicated that regardless of fresh pork stored at 4℃, streamed rice or wet noodles stored at 30℃, 0.2-1.6% acetone extracts of MCDD were demonstrated for relative degree of inhibitory effects on total aerobic plate count, S. aureus, B. subtilis and V. parahaemolyticus, no matter on the initial bacterial count or final bacterial growth. Because of the ethanol extracts of MCDD (E-MCDD) had good taste, the preservative effect of E-MCDD on streamed rice stored at 30℃ was examined. The results showed that both ethanol and acetone extracts had considerable effects on the inhibition of microorganisms at the concentration of 4%.
Sensory evaluations of fried pork and streamed rice treated with acetone or ethanol extracts of MCDD were performed. The results indicated that the fried pork treated with 0.4% E-MCDD was the same as the control either on color, aroma, taste or on overall acceptability. The streamed rice treated with 0.2-0.4 % ethanol or acetone extracts of MCDD were identical to the control on color, aroma, taste and overall acceptability except the 0.4 % acetone extract of MCDD.
In summary, both ethanol and acetone extracts of MCDD had significant antimicrobial abilities and exhibited good microorganic control on food model systems. There will have great potential in the extract of MCDD for used as a natural food preservative.
食品保存劑的市場增加，健康意識的抬頭，天然食品保存劑的開發成為一種的趨勢，有鑑於台灣本土藥用植物的種類繁多，因此本研究針對19種台灣藥用植物進行抑菌性質篩選，結果顯示，野牡丹粗萃物的味道似蜜餞且具有高度抑菌作用，白芨粗萃物之顏色及味道最為淺淡，具有中度之抑菌作用，兩者均具有開發成為食品保存劑的潛力。進一步探討其抑菌性質，野牡丹粗萃物之最低抑菌濃度 (MICs) 為0.02-1.28 % (w/v)，最低殺菌濃度 (MBCs) 為0.08-2.56 % (w/v)，均比白芨粗萃物為低，顯示出較佳之抑菌作用。野牡丹粗萃物經70、100、121℃之熱處理，均不影響其抑菌活性，於pH 5-8之介質中其抑菌效果穩定。
將野牡丹粗萃物投入食品模式系統中，研究其對新鮮豬肉、米飯及生麵條等食品在儲藏過程中微生物控制，評估其在食品系統中之應用性。結果顯示出，0.2-1.6 % 野牡丹丙酮粗萃物對於4℃儲藏新鮮豬肉及30℃儲藏米飯、生麵條，儲藏期間之生菌數、金黃色葡萄球菌、仙人掌桿菌及腸炎弧菌之初始菌數及最終生長，均有不同程度之抑制效果，處理濃度愈高抑制效果愈佳。由於野牡丹乙醇粗萃物有令人喜愛似蜜餞之味道，因此測試其對30℃儲存米飯之保存效果，結果發現乙醇粗萃物與丙酮粗萃物同樣在粗萃物濃度0.4 % (w/w) 時，即可對儲存米飯之微生物顯示出良好的抑制效果。
野牡丹丙酮及乙醇粗萃物處理過之煎豬肉片及米飯之消費者感官品質分析中，在顏色、氣味、味道及整體喜好性方面，0.4 %野牡丹乙醇粗萃物處理過之煎豬肉，均與未經處理者無差異。經0.2-0.4 %野牡丹丙酮及乙醇粗萃物處理之米飯中，除以0.4 %野牡丹丙酮粗萃物處理者外，其餘在顏色、氣味、味道及整體喜好性方面均與未處理者無差異。
|Appears in Collections:||食品暨應用生物科技學系|
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