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Taste Quality and Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Pleurotus citrinopileatus
|關鍵字:||Pleurotus citrinopileatus;金頂側耳;taste quality;antioxidant properties;antimutagenic properties;呈味特性;抗氧化;抗致突變性||出版社:||食品科學系||摘要:||
菇類之子實體和菌絲體可用來做為食品、調味料、特殊化學物質的生產 (如水溶性多醣) 及醫療用物質的生產 (如抗生素、抗癌藥物和抗病藥物)。金頂側耳是台灣近年來新興的一種食用菇，本研究係針對金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液進行一般成分、呈味特性、抗氧化和抗致突變性之分析。
金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液乙醇萃取物在抗氧化力部分，於20 mg/ml時，依序為子實體（87.91%）>菌絲體（79.00%）>發酵液（64.78%）。還原力部分，金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體和發酵液萃取物在10 mg/ml時，分別為1.06、0.62和1.05。金頂側耳子實體（95.85%）、菌絲體（92.78%）及發酵液（99.93%）之乙醇萃取物在20 mg/ml時，具有極佳的補捉DPPH自由基的能力，補捉能力較熱水萃取物佳。金頂側耳乙醇萃取物並不具清除羥自由基能力，在螯合亞鐵離子方面於20 mg/ml時，子實體（75.67%）和菌絲體（74.95%）無顯著差異，而大於發酵液（22.28%）。
本試驗使用安氏試驗法，以Salmonella typhimurium TA98 和TA100為測試菌株，探討金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液熱水萃取物之抗致突變性。結果顯示在0.1-5.0 mg/plate的添加濃度範圍，TA98和TA100均不具毒性及致突變性。金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液熱水萃取物在試驗範圍內皆具抗致突變性，其中以金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物在 TA98和TA100測試系統中對NQNO和B[a]P 抗突變效果最佳。
Mushroom fruit bodies and mycelia can be used as foods and food flavoring, to produce specifically chemical and medical substances, such as water soluble polysaccharides as well as pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, anticancer and antidisease drugs. Pleurotus citrinopileatus Sing is a new edible fungi in Taiwan recently. The objectives of this research were to investigate the proximate composition, taste quality, antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effect of Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth.
Carbohydrate (30.87-45.82%) and protein (25.99-29.50%) were major components and crude fibers (13.80-18.03%) in fruit bodies and mycelia. In fermented broth, carbohydrate was the major components (78%). In fruit bodies, mannitol was major soluble sugars. Fruit bodies had more succinic acids in orgainic acids assay. Fruit bodies were similar in total amino acid to mycelia higher than fermented broth. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid in fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth. In flavor volatiles, 2-pentyl furan, 1-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol were the major volatile of fruit bodies and mycelia. Fruit bodies might have the highest palatable taste than mycelia and fermented broth in 5''''''''-nucleotides, orgainic acids and free amino acid assay.
The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were in the order Pleurotus citrinopileatus, fruit bodies (87.91%) > mycelia (79.00%) > fermented broth (64.78%) at 20 mg/ml. The reducing powers of ethanol extracts were 1.06, 0.62 and 1.05 at 10 mg/ml for fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth, respectively. The ethanol extracts from fruit bodies (95.85%), mycelia (92.78%) and fermented broth (99.93%) showed an excellent scavenging effect on DPPH than hot extracts at 20 mg/ml. Ethanol extracts didn´t show an excellent scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals. The chelating effect on ferrous ions of ethanol extracts were in the order Pleurotus citrinopileatus, fruit bodies (75.67%) ≈ mycelia (74.95%) > fermented broth (22.28%)at 20 mg/ml.
Hot water extracts were similar in antioxidant properties to cold water extracts. Antioxidant properties of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were studied in the form hot water and cold water extracts, fruit bodies > mycelia > fermented broth. The water extracts from fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth showed an excellent scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals and chelating effect on ferrous ions than extracts from ethanol.
Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in all samples.
The antimutagenicity of hot water extraxts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth was investigated by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. No toxicity and mutagenicity were found in hot water extraxts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus at the dose of 0.1-5.0 mg/plate. The hot water extracts from Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and filtrate showed best antimutagenicity effect to against direct-acting mutagen of NQNO (without S9 mix) and indirect-acting m Pleurotus citrinopileatus utagen of B[a]P (add S9 mix). The hot water extracts from Pleurotus citrinopileatus fermented broth showed excellent effect than fruit bodies, and mycelia to against NQNO and B [a] P toward TA98 and TA100.
Considering the studies, in addition their abundant nutrients, Pleurotus citrinopileatus exhibit good antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effects. The basis of developing Pleurotus citrinopileatus health food seems can from our research.
Keywords: Pleurotus citrinopileatus, taste quality, antioxidant properties, antimutagenic properties
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