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標題: 高溫性細菌分解有機污泥及光合作用細菌利用污泥分解物生成氫氣之研究
Degradation of waste activate sludge by thermophilic bacteria and photobiological hydrogen production from digested sludge supernatant by purple nonsulfur bacteria
作者: 陳菀貽
Chen, Wan-Yi
關鍵字: thermophilic bacteria;高溫菌;purple nonsulfur bacteria;sludge;photobiological hydrogen production;紫色不含硫菌;污泥分解;光合產氫
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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高溫好氧消化系統是一項可以有效達到污泥減量的處理程序。當系統中的氧氣受到限制時,導致槽內有機酸的累積。而有機酸亦為紫色不含硫光合作用細菌產生氫氣之重要基質,若能結合污泥減量及光合產氫的程序,則可將廢棄污泥以能源方式回收,是一項對環境友善之技術。第一部份為以批次實驗探討污泥消化槽之最適污泥分解及累積有機酸的操作條件並尋找最適污泥來源,結果指出在污泥消化槽內添加細菌Geobacillus thermocatenulatus S2,污泥消化槽最適操作條件為接種 7.5 % 的菌量、控制污泥在pH為6.5 ~ 7.5之間及曝氣速率為0.25 vvm時,有最高的有機酸累積量448 mg/L。若控制在此適當操作條件下,測試不同來源的污泥之分解及有機酸累積情形時,發現所得到的有機酸累積量很有限,因此以產酸速率、VSS/SS及VFAs/sCOD等數值來檢視各個條件下的污泥是否適合累積有機酸。結果指出造紙廠的廢棄污泥在0.25 vvm的曝氣速率下,VFAs/sCOD可達0.24為所有污泥中最高,且可累積400 mg/L的有機酸達30 h,因此為最適合累積有機酸的來源。第二部份為提升污泥消化槽之有機酸累積量,並做進一步的測試,批次實驗之結果顯示,添加菌種於污泥消化槽內確實可以有效累積有機酸,且有機酸的主要來源亦為污泥的固體物,而非液體物。以連續進流污泥至CSTR的高溫好氧消化槽中,探討有機酸累積量是否會增加,其結果指出,連續進流污泥可使有機酸累積約達800 mg/L,且添加的菌株不會因此流失,還能不斷作用。第三部份為光合菌Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5利用前述實驗中的污泥水解物做為基質,進行產氫的測試。將批次實驗所得的污泥水解產物做為光合菌WP3-5的產氫基質,發現不管產物以水稀釋幾倍都沒有產氫情形。以buffer稀釋污泥水解物並添加酵素cofactor,觀察其產氫情形,結果仍然沒有產氫,推測可能是有機酸濃度不足與氨氮濃度太高所致。以不同策略控制氨氮對光合菌之影響並觀察其產氫的情形,結果顯示光合菌WP3-5會將添加的有機酸用來生長,後期處於低氨氮環境下也會因為批次反應瓶內有機酸已耗盡而不產氫。批次實驗之結果指出,污泥水解物可供光合菌WP3-5生長,但無法產生氫氣,若能進一步處理污泥水解物,使污泥水解物成為低氨氮濃度、高有機酸之廢水,或許可使光合菌產氫,以期達廢棄物資源化之目的。

Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) which applies thermotolerant microbes and their extracellular enzymes to degrade waste activated sludge (WAS) is a considerably new and dynamic technique. It is no doubt that if TAD process is modified to be operated under microaerobic condition, the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is expected. VFAs are suitable substrates for purple nonsulfur bacteria to grow and produce hydrogen. Thus, combining the modified TAD process with photohydrogen production makes sludge removal and energy recycle possible.
In order to decide the best operating strategies of the TAD reactor, the factor of inoculation, initial pH, aeration rate and several kinds of sludge would be investigated. The optimum initial pH and inoculation of Geobacillus thermocatenulatus S2 were 6.5 ~ 7.5 and 7.5 %, respectively. Under microaerobic condition (0.25 vvm), 2L paper sludge were digested for 58 h, 65 ℃. The result indicated that the removal efficiencies of SS and VSS were 42.40 and 52.73 %, respectively. The final concentration of VFAs in the liquid phase of the digested sludge were 530 mg/L. It was observed that the liquid phase of sludge was contributed to VFAs. Subsequently, inoculation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus J was discussed, and there was no significant influence. Furthermore, 2 L TAD reactor was operated in a continuous model at 65℃. The result indicated that the higher concentration of VFAs was investigated. The result of hydrogen production by strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 with different dilution ratios of the digested liquid revealed that no hydrogen was produced in all dilution solution ( 0.4X, 0.6X, 0.8X ,non-dilute ). Three kinds of chemicals (Fe, buffer, Fe and buffer) were added respectively, the experiment results showed that, strain WP3-5 could grow in the presence of higher NH4+ concentration, but there was still no hydrogen production. An tempt was made to find the effect of C/N ratio, the experiment results illustrated that, the lower NH4+ concentration, the higher pH value, when C/N was 1: 7, production of hydrogen was not improved. Thus, for photohydrogen production by WP3-5, it seems that there was higher VFAs content and lower NH4+ concentration, hydrogen might be produced.
其他識別: U0005-1907200618255500
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