Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51820
標題: 舞菇、羊肚菌與雞肉絲菇菌絲體之抗氧化及抗致突變性質
Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta and Termyitomyces albuminosus mycelia
作者: 張潔娜
Chang, Chieh-No
關鍵字: 舞菇;Grifola frondosa;羊肚菌;雞肉絲菇;抗氧化性質;抗致突變性質;Morchella esculenta;Termitomyces albuminosus;mycelia;antioxidant properties;antimutagenic effect
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: 
本研究係針對舞菇[Grifola frondosa (Dickson: Fries) Gray]、羊肚菌[Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.]與雞肉絲菇[Termitomyces albuminosus (Berkeley & Broome) Heim]菌絲體進行一般成份分析及探討其甲醇萃取物之抗氧化性與抗致突變性質。
舞菇菌絲體之主要成份為醣類(32.00%)和粗脂肪(30.26%);羊肚菌含醣類(46.67%)和粗蛋白(27.56%);雞肉絲菇則含醣類(30.24%)和高量的粗蛋白(40.60%)。
三種菇類菌絲體之甲醇萃取物在抗氧化性質中之抗氧化力(共軛雙烯法)方面:在10 mg/ml下,其抗氧化力依序為雞肉絲菇(89.83%)>舞菇(78.15%)>羊肚菌(71.3%);隨其樣品濃度增加,抗氧化力亦有增加之趨勢。在10 mg/ml下,還原力依序為舞菇(0.62)~羊肚菌(0.64)>雞肉絲菇(0.43)。菇類菌絲體之還原力隨著其樣品添加量之增加而增加;但遠不及BHA與-tocopherol者。在10 mg/ml下,捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味月井基團(DPPH)能力方面,羊肚菌(94.06%)顯著高於舞菇(79.43%)和雞肉絲菇(78.82%)。但隨著各試驗樣品添加量之增加,其捕捉能力亦隨之增加。在5 mg/ml下,捕捉羥自由基之能力依序為雞肉絲菇(5.51%)>羊肚菌(0.91%)>舞菇(0.00%)。此外,三種菇類菌絲體甲醇萃取物在螯合亞鐵離子上之能力亦隨其添加量之增加而上升;在10 mg/ml下,三者螯合亞鐵離子之能力可達90~94%。
在天然抗氧化成份方面:由三種菇類菌絲體甲醇萃取物的成份分析結果得知,羊肚菌含有3.63 mg/g的總酚類,顯著高於舞菇(1.59 mg/g)與雞肉絲菇所含者(1.80 mg/g)。三者抗壞血酸含量在0.13-0.14 mg/g及總生育醇含量在0.14-0.17 mg/g之間,至於-胡蘿蔔素則未檢測出。
本研究採用安氏試驗法以鼠傷寒沙門桿菌TA97、TA98、TA100和TA102為試驗菌株,分別進行三種菇類菌絲體之甲醇萃取物對其之抗致突變性試驗。結果顯示在毒性試驗方面:此三種菌絲體甲醇萃取物無論有無添加老鼠肝細胞抽出液(S9 mix),在試驗樣品添加劑量1000 g/plate時均產生毒性,但若降低到500 g /plate,則不具毒性。在致突變性試驗方面:此三種菌絲體甲醇萃取物均不具致突變性。
抗突變性試驗方面:當試驗樣品添加量為500 g/plate時,三種菌絲體甲醇萃取物皆對NQNO所誘發之TA98突變有較佳之抑制效果,而其抑制率依序為羊肚菌(42.49%)>舞菇(37.5%)>雞肉絲菇(35.42%)。同時在500 g/plate下,對MMNG所誘發之TA100突變也有較佳抑制效果,抑制率分別為舞菇(36.24%)>雞肉絲菇(33.38%)>羊肚菌(27.64%)。至於在B[a]P致突變劑抑制方面:在500 g/plate下分別是舞菇之菌絲體甲醇萃取物對B[a]P所誘發之TA102突變有較佳抑制效果,抑制率為29.21%;羊肚菌對B[a]P所誘發之TA98突變有較佳抑制效果,抑制率為41.53%;而雞肉絲菇則對B[a]P所誘發之TA100突變抑制效果較好,抑制率為21.30%。
綜此,可知舞菇、羊肚菌與雞肉絲菇菌絲體除含豐富營養成分外,尚且具備抗氧化及抗致突變特性。因此,本研究之結果將可提供農業、保健食品及各相關產業在應用上之參考,而以此三種菇類菌絲體製備出保健食品或作為其組成份,進而達到天然物妥善運用之目的。

The objestives of this reserch were to investigate the proximate composition, antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effect of methanolic extracts from [Grifola frondosa (Dickson:Fries) Gray], [Morchellaesculenta (L.) Pers.] and [Termitomyces albuminosus (Berkeley & Broome) Heim] mycelia.
As a result of our investigation, carbohydrate and crude fat were major components of Grifola frondosa mycelia (32.00% and 30.26%). In Morchella esculenta mycelia, carbohydrate and crude protein were major components (46.67% and 27.56%). In Termitomyces albuminosus mycelia, carbohydrate and crude protein were also major components (30.24% and 40.60%).
The antioxidatnt activity, using the conjugated diene methods at 10 mg/ml, was found in the order of T. albuminosus (89.83%) > G. frondosa (78.15%) > M. esculenta (71.3%).
The reducing power of methanolc extracts from mycelia increased with increased concentration. Morever, the reducing power of extracts (10 mg/ml) was in the order of G. frondosa (0.62) ~ M. esculenta (0.64) > T. albuminosus (0.43), but they were less than those of DHA and -tocopherol. At 10 mg/ml dose, the scavenging effect on DPPH, M. esculenta (94.06%) was higher than G. frondosa (79.43%) and T. albuminosus (78.82%). Obviously, the scavenging effects of extracts on DPPH also increased with increased concentration. At 5 mg/ml dose, the scavenging effect of samples on hydroxy radicals was in the order of T. albuminosus (5.51%) > M. esculenta (0.91%) > G. frondosa (0.00%). In addition, the chelating effect on ferrous ions was 90~94% at 10 mg/ml for methanolic extracts from these three mycelia, indicating they possessed excellent chelating effect on ferrous ions.
The natural antioxidant components found included ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols. Total phenols were the major components found in all methanolic extracts, which were found in the order M. esculenta (3.63 mg/ml) > G. frondosa (1.80 mg/ml)> T. albuminosus (1.59 mg/ml). However, -carotene was not detected in the above mycelia. No mutagencity in Samonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 was observed at 0.01-500 g/plate of methanolic extracts from G. frondosa, M. esculenta, and T. albuminosus mycelia. At 500 g/plate dose, the methanolic extracts from three mycelia showed markedly antimutagenicity effect of Benzo [a] pyrene, N-methyl-N''-nitrosoguanidine, and 4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide to Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102.
Summarily, in addition to their abundant nutrients, G. frondosa, M. esculenta, and T. albuminosus mycelia exhibit good antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effects. Therefore, the results of this study could provide valuable information for application agriculture, health foods and other related industries to prepare and formulate nutrient foods or as their ingredient.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51820
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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