Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51822
標題: 豆腐製作過程中最適凝結條件測定方法之探討
Development of the Measurement Method of Optimum Conditiions in the Manufacture Process of Traditional Tofu
作者: 鄭郁霖
Cheng, Yu-Lin
關鍵字: tofu;豆腐;coagulant;calcium sulfate;response surface methodology;electric conductivity;凝結劑;硫酸鈣;反應曲面法;電導度
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: 
豆腐的製造過程牽涉到許多因子的複雜交互作用,其中的豆乳凝結作用為傳統豆腐製作過程中的重要程序,對於豆腐產品的產率及品質有著重要而直接的影響。傳統測定凝結過程中凝結劑添加量的方法包括:測量壓榨所得乳清之光透射比、乳清pH值、乳清體積、及壓榨後所得豆腐產品的高度、硬度等,在測定上相當麻煩且耗時;而測量豆乳在凝結過程中電導度值的變化是近來所發展出之較為簡單及快速的方法。
本研究根據前人的數據結果採用硫酸鈣濃度0.5-1.5﹪,攪拌速度100-400 rpm,凝結溫度50-80℃以及豆乳濃度4-12 。Brix作為操作條件及範圍,配合反應曲面法之四因子五層階的試驗設計,設定27組的條件組合來進行試驗。經由試驗結果發現:在硫酸鈣濃度0.5﹪,凝結溫度50℃下,以11-12 。Brix的豆乳濃度加上325-400 rpm的攪拌速度作用下所得到的豆腐,可以得到在彈性度、咀嚼度、硬度及整體接受性上接受度較大的豆腐;又在此條件下,豆腐凝結過程中之電導度值為4.0-4.2 mS/cm,豆腐產率為500(g tofu/100g soybean),且可製得質地較軟的豆腐。利用電導度值來作為豆腐凝結過程中最適條件的判斷不僅簡單而且快速,又電導度之電極可耐高溫,倘若可以配合現代化的電腦設備,來進行凝結劑的添加以及電導度值的控制,對於豆腐之生產製作將會有相當助益。

Tofu-making involves a complex interaction of many factors. Coagulation of soymilk is an important process in the manufacture of traditional tofu, and affects the yield and quality of tofu products significantly. Traditional methods, including measurement of transmittance of whey obtained after pressing, volume of whey, pH of whey, and the height and hardness of tofu obtained, etc., for the determination of appropriate adding amount of coagulant during tofu coagulation are time-consuming and inconvenient. Measurement of the variation of electric conductivity of soymilk during coagulation is a rapid and convenient method developed recently.
Four-variable central composite rotatable design in response surface methodology (RSM) will be used in this study, and the adding amount of coagulant (0.5-1.5﹪), coagulation temperature (50-80℃), soymilk concentration (4-12。Brix), and stirring speed (100-400 rpm) will be adopted as operating variables. According to the results of experiment, tofu manufactured based on the conditions of the concentration of CaSO4•2H2O 0.5﹪, coagulation temperature 50℃, soymilk concentration 11-12。Brix and stirring speed 325-400 rpm, possessed higher sensory evaluation scores in springiness, chewiness, hardness and overall acceptability. In these conditions, electric conductivity values in the coagulation of tofu were around 4.0-4.2 mS/cm, the yield of tofu was about 500 (g tofu / 100g soybeam), and the texture of tofu obtained was tenderer. It is a simple and rapid method to use electric conductivity value to determine the optimum conditions during the coagulation process of traditional tofu. On the other hand, the electrode of electric conductivity meter could endure higher temperature. By combining with the electric conductivity measurement, modern equipments, such as computer, could be adopted to control the adding amount of coagulant and the value of electric conductivity, and certain benefits could be obtained in the manufacture of tofu in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51822
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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