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標題: 不同光源照射發芽糙米抗氧化酵素和機能性物質之探討
Studies on the Antioxidant Defense Activity and Functional Substances Induced during Short-Time Germinated Brown Rice by Two Sources of Light
作者: 王文美
Wang, Wen-Meei
關鍵字: germination;發芽;far infrared rays (FIR);antioxidative enzyme;non-enzymatic antioxidants;functional substances;遠紅外線光;過氧化清除酵素;非酵素性的抗氧化物質;機能性物質
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
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發芽糙米具有提升人體免疫恢復力及改善老人痴呆等生理功能、又含inosital、oryzanol、GABA及可預防抗酸性物質等,可作為良好之保健食品原料。吾人瞭解如SOD、CAT、APX、GR & DHAR等過氧化清除酵素(酶) 及非酵素性的抗氧化物質,如glutathione及ascorbic acid等等,可為植物體內化解或抑制自由基及過氧化物形成的防禦系統。這些酵素和抗氧化物質透過ascorbate-glutathione cycle的連結來進行清除自由基的工作。有“生命線”之稱的遠紅外線波長範圍4~16微米間對人類的生存與萬物的生長都極為重要。目前稉米仍是國人偏好米種,然台中秈10號長粒型米,是目前與稉米相近之最好吃的秈稻良質米品種。本研究以省產良質米台中秈10號(TCS10)及台稉8號 (TK8) 糙米為製備發芽糙米之原料。將糙米置於25℃生長箱中,分別以一般日光燈光(NL)或遠紅外線光(FIR,8~12微米)照射15, 18或21小時後,將發芽糙米給予三種處理:發芽後之濕發芽糙米直接冷凍(-81℃)貯藏、經冷凍乾燥和低溫乾燥兩種回乾處理後再行冷凍(-81℃)貯藏備用,藉以探討和比較不同品種及不同燈照處理發芽糙米抗氧化防禦系統(酵素活性)、機能性物質及回乾處理方式的變化情形。由結果顯示,以FIR照射發芽之胚芽突出較一般光源照射處理組為顯著,且浸潤時間較短,表示FIR照射處理較NL照射可促使糙米提前發芽。經短時間之發芽處理提升了糙米抗氧化酵素活性、抗氧化能力及機能性物質含量;且經由與清除過氧化物相關酵素活性的被誘導出來,糙米內過氧化物也逐漸被清除,以FIR燈照者均較 NL燈照發芽顯著。台中秈10號發芽糙米也顯示出比台稉8號發芽糙米有著更高的抗氧化酵素活性、抗氧化能力及機能性物質含量。而經低溫乾燥處理之發芽糙米酵素活性較凍乾處理高。是以,在本試驗TCS10 和 TK8發芽糙米預實驗結果發現浸潤處理誘導提昇了糙米之抗氧化酵素活性、抗氧化物含量、抗氧化能力和機能性物質含量,顯示可提高糙米之保健功能。TCS10糙米經18小時短時間之發芽處理提升了糙米抗氧化酵素活性及抗氧化能力,顯示選擇適當之稻米品種,如TCS10作為發芽米應是恰當的。在以FIR(8~12μm)照射下除可縮短發芽時間外,並較一般25℃燈照發芽有較好的酵素活性及抗氧化能力效果。同時,也發現FIR照射下波長的影響較溫度為大。機能性物質之GABA與肌醇三-六磷酸酯 (IP3-IP6) 含量因發芽而提昇。植酸經回乾處理後所下降之含量可能為肌醇五磷酸酯(IP5)之含量下降所致。 Ascorbic acid在糙米發芽處理之防禦系統ascorbate-glutathione cycle的連結中扮演著重要地位。

Two brown rice varieties, Taichung Sen 10 (TCS10, indica) and Taikeng 8 (TK8, japonica) were used as germination tested samples. The antioxidative enzyme activities (AEA), like as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and total peroxidase etc, and the level of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC), as well as the total antioxidant activity (TAA), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Total peroxide and the functional substances of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), oryzanol and inositol were all examined and then compared between two varieties of germinated brown rice (GBR) by two sources of light in this study. The effect of re-drying processes will also be evaluated. Germination process of the GBR was conducted for 15, 18, or 21 hr duration period respectively under either normal light (NL) or far infrared rays (FIR, 8-12μm) lightening in a growth chamber, the temperature of growth chamber was controlled at 25℃ ± 2℃. The slightly germinated brown rice (GBR) was then divided into three parts before stored in a -81℃ freezer for further uses: the first one is wet germinated brown rice without further treatment after germinateon; the second one is freeze-dried and the third one is room temperature dried. The data showed that the FIR treatments, when comparing with NL treatments, indeed enhance the germination processing to occur earlier. The resulting data also showed that the short time germinated brown rice possess greater activities of AEA, levels of antioxidant and contents of functional substances than those ungerminated control. The ungerminated control and GBR from TCS10 variety had a higher AEA (except catalase and MDA), GSH and ASC levels than those of TK8 variety. Germinated TCS10 samples also had a higher total antioxidant ability (ABTS) and GABA contents than those did of control and germinated TK8 ones. FIR lightening treated samples promoted better AEA, GSH and ASC levels, TAA and GABA contents than those produced by germination under normal light treated. The data further revealed that the way of room temperature dried had higher antioxidative enzyme activities than those freeze-dried. Thus, under the experiment conditions in this study, we concluded that germination process could induce and promote the antioxidative enzyme activities, the level of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, as well as the total antioxidant activity and the functional substances of brown rice. The short time germination process, especially lightening treated by FIR, enhanced the biochemical activity and result in improving the nutritional and physiological benefits of brown rice. The effect from its wave length may greater than the promoting temperature one. Taichung Sen 10 (TCS10, indica) variety could be another nice chosen as healthy GBR material. The contents of GABA and inositol phosphates (IP3-IP6) increased by the process of germination. Ascorbic acid should play an important role inside the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during the germinated brown rice process。
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