Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51972
標題: 添加紅糟部份取代亞硝酸鹽對臘肉感官品質及抗氧化性質之影響
Effect of using red mold rice to partially replace nitrite on sensory quality and antioxidant properties of salted and cured meat
作者: Huang, Peng-Cheng
黃鵬程
關鍵字: Cured meat;臘肉;Red mold rice;Nitrite;Antioxidant;Sensory evalution;紅糟;亞硝酸鹽;抗氧化;感官品評
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
引用: 中國國家標準。1982。冷凍魚類檢驗法。C.N.S.1451,N6029。經濟部中央標準局。台北市。 王政騰、林慧生、曾弘智、林慶文。1982。屠體之氯化水噴灑真空包裝材料及冷卻速率對冷藏豬肉品質之影響。中畜會誌。11:23-40。 王英凱、林仁混。1999。紅麴降血脂作用之探討與紅麴活性成份Lovastatin及天然藥物類黃素抗癌細胞轉移與引發細胞凋亡機制之研究。國立台灣大學生化學研究所博士論文。 林讚峰。1995。紅麴菌培養工藝及紅麴應用之演進。製酒科技專論彙編。17:156-168。 林苑暉、郭俊欽。1995。鹿角菜膠及橄欖油對中式香腸化學、微生物及官能特性之影響。食品科學。22(4):395-406。 林亮全。1992。中式香腸添加硝酸鹽之適切性研究。食品科學。19(2):207-216。 林讚峰。1983。紅麴菌的鑑定及實用分類法。製酒科技專論彙編。5:104-113。 李時珍。1997。本草綱目。文化圖書公司。台北市。 佐藤喜吉。1936。東洋產 Monascus 屬分類に對すゐ—考察。日農化會誌。12: 583-586。 佐藤恭子、板元史步、川崎洋子、米谷明雄。1998。べニコウジ色素中のシトリニソの分析法に關すゐ研究。日本食品化學學會誌,5:64-68。 桂楚漢。1984。紅糟浸漬理對貯存期間豬肉蛋白質電泳性質之影響。碩士論文。中興大學畜產學研究所。 陳倩琪。2009。紅麴Monascus。食品工業。41(11):22-39。 陳彥霖。2003。紅麴中橘黴素之生成及安全性。食品工業。35(3):30-37。 陳松生、毛寧、陳哲超。1995。紅麴黴的麥角固醇研究。食品與醱酵工業。6:18-23。 陳明造。1992。台灣肉品工業之現況與展望。食品資訊,83:23-34。 莊啟祥。1999。原料肉經浸漬液處理對低脂中式香腸及豬里肌肉排品質影響之探討 靜宜大學碩士論文。台中市。 張為憲。1992。高等食品化學。第42頁。華香園出版社,台北市。 黃文瑛。1993。中式香腸之衛生品質。國立屏東技術學院學報。2:49- 56。 黃顯宗。1985。紅麴菌研究的回顧與展望 真菌學之最近發展 國科會生物科學研究中心專刊。12:109-124。 楊瑩蓉、陳明造、劉登城。1998。中式香腸之不同香辛料其抗氧化性及抗菌性之探討。中國畜牧學會會誌。27(1):117-128。 楊里娟、郭俊欽。1994。D-山梨醇與三聚合磷酸鈉對中式香腸品質之影響。食品科學。21(1):46-57。 楊嚴俊。2004。食品分析。第248-252頁。藝軒圖書出版社,台北市。 新村裕、山田順一、藤井静江、高坂和久。1985。ピックル注入法におけるハムの塩せき期間中の保水力,亜硝酸根残存量,発色率,食塩拡散状態,硝酸塩からの亜硝酸根生成量の変化。日食工誌。28:38-49。 蔡正宗、紀學斌、賴辛芳、郭俊欽。1988。低鈉鹽對中式香腸品質之影響。食品科學。15(1):56-65。 蔣見美、游淑媛、黃菜鳳。1990。不同包裝方法對中式香腸貯藏品質之影響。食品科學。17(1):23-36。 駱秋英、吳欽澤。1996。中式香腸製程中影響金黃色葡萄球菌殘存量的加工因子。中國畜牧學會會誌。25(1):97-106。 編輯部。1999。紅麴製品的橘黴素污染問題,New food industry。41(8):10-12。 蘇和平、林文淵、紀學斌。1998。調氣環境與醃漬溫度對中式香腸醃漬瘦肉理化學性質之影響。食品科學。25(6):667-678。 蘇遠志。1978。紅麴色素之生產研究。食品科學。5(2): 4A-17A。 蘇遠志、陳文亮、方鴻學、翁浩慶、王文祥。1970。紅麴菌 (Monascus anka)之菌學研究。中國農業化學誌。8: 46-54。 Alberto, M., Stchigel, J. F., Samir, C., Abdullah, K. and Guarro, J. 2004. New and interesting species of Monascus from soil, with a key to the known species. Studies In Mycology 50, 299-306. Aniya, Y., Yokomakura, T., Yonamine, M., Shimada, K., Nagamine, T., Shimabukuro, M., and Gibo, H. 1999. Screening of antioxidant action of various molds and protection of Monascus anka against experimentally induced liver injuries of rats. Gen Pharmacol. 32:225-231. Arnao, M. B., Cano, A., Hernandez-Ruiz, J., Garcia-Canovas, F. and Acosta, M. 1996. Inhibition by L-ascorbic acid and other antioxidants of the 2.2''-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase: a new approach for determining total antioxidant status of foods. Analytical Biochemistry. 236: 255-261. Banks, H., Nickelson, R. and Finne, G. 1980. Shelf-life studies on carbon dioxide packaged finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. J. Food Sci. 45:157-162. Barnard, E. L. and Cannon, P. F. 1987. A new species of Monascus from pine tissues in Florida. Mycologia 79: 479-484. Blanc, P. J., Loret, M. O., Santerre, A. L., Prome, D., Prome, J. C., Laussac, J. P. and Goma, G. 1994. Pigments of Monascus. J. Food Sci. 59(4): 862-865. Blanc, P. J., Loret, M. O., and Goma, G. 1995. Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotech. Lett. 17:291-294. Carels, M.and Shepherd, D. 1977. The effect of different nitrogen sources on pigment production and sporulation of Monascus species in submerged, shaken culture, Can. J. Microbiol. 23:1360-1372. Chen, C. C. and Liu, I. M. 2006. Release of acetylcholine by Hon-Chi to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neuroscience Letter, 404(1-2):117-121. Chen, Y. P., Tseng, C. P., Liaw, L. L., Wang, C. L., Chen, I. C., Wu, W. J., Wu, M. D. and Yuan, G. F. 2008. Cloning and characterization of monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster from Monascus pilosus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 5639-5646. Christiansen L. N., R. W. Johnston, D. A. Kautfer, J. W. Howard, and W. J. Aunan. 1973. Effect of nitrite and nitrate on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum and on nitrosamine formation in perishable canned comminuted cured meat. Appl. and Enviro. Microb. 25: 357-362. Ciegler, A., Vesonder, R. F. and Jackson, L. K. 1977. Production and biological activity of patulin and citrinin from Penicillium expansum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:1004–1006. Collins-Thompson, D. L., Sen, N. P., Aris, B. and Schwinghamer, L. 1974. Effect of sodium nitrite on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in bacon. Appl. Microbiol. 27:733–737. Cox, R. J. 2007. Polyketides, proteins and genes in fungi: programmed nano-machines begin to reveal their secrets. Org. Biomol. Chem. 5:2010–2026. Dahle, L. K., Hill, E. G. and Holman, R. T. 1962. The thiobarbituric acid reaction and the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 98: 253-261. Decker, E. A. and Welch, B. 1990. Role of ferritin as a lipid oxidation catalyst in muscle food. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 38: 674. Dinis, T. C. P., Madeira, V. M. C. and Almeida, L. M. 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives(acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-amion salicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and asperoxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 315:161-169. Endo, A. 1979. Monacolin K a new hypochololesterolemic agent produced by a Monascus species. J. Antibiotics(Tokyo) 32:852-854. Endo, A. 1985. Compactin(MG236B)and related compounds as potential cholesterol lowering agents that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase. J. Med. Chem. 28:401-405. Gill, C. O. and Tan, K. H. 1980. Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of meat spoilage bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 6: 223-230. Griffin, D. H. 1981. Fungal physilolgy, John Wiely & Sons, New York, pp. 219-239. Hajjaj, H., A. Klae´be´, Loret, M. O., Goma, G., Blanc, P. J. and Francois. J. 1999a. Biosynthetic pathway of citrinin in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber as revealed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65:311-314. Hajjaj, H., Blanc, P. J., Groussac, E., Goma, G., Uribelarrea, L. and Loubiere, P. 1999b. Improvement of red pigment/citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions by Monascus ruber. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 64:497-501. Hajja, H., Blanc, P., Groussac, E., Uribelarrea, J. L., Goma, G. and Loubiere, P. 2000a. Kinetic analysis of red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus ruber as a function of organic acid accumulation. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 27:619-625. Hajjaj, H., Klaébé, A., Goma, G., Blanc, P. J., Barbier, E. and Francois, J. 2000b. Medium-chain fatty acids affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:1120-1125. Hamm, R. 1971. Interactions between phosphates and meat proteins. In J. M. Demain and P. Melnychyn, eds. Phosphates in Food Processing, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. pp. 65-68. Hetherington, A. A. and Raistrick, H. 1931. Studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms. XI. On the production and chemical constitution of a new yellow colouring matter, citrinin, product from glucose by Penicillum citrinum Thom. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ser. B, 220:269-297. Hong, M.Y., Seeram, N.P., Zhang, Y. and Hiber, D. 2008. Anticancer effectsw of Chinese red yeast rice versus monacolin K alone on colon cancer cells. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19:448-458. Juzlova, P., Rezanka, T., Martinkova, L., and Kren, V. 1996. Long-chain fatty acids from Monascus purpureus. Phytochemistry. 43:151-153. Krejci, M. E., Bretz, N. S. and Koechel, D. A. 1996. Citrinin produces acute adverse changes in renal functional and ultrastructure in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs without concomitant reductions in potassium. Toxicology. 106: 167-177. Kohama Y. 1987 Isolation and identification of hypotensive principle in red mold rice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 25:2484-2489. Kowalski, D. P., AW, T. Y., Park, Y. and Jones, D. P. 1992. Postanoxic oxidative injury in rat hepatocytes: lactate-dependent protection against tert-butylhydroperoxide. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 12: 205-212. Kuo, J. C., Dresel, J. and Leistner, L. 1994. Effects of sodium lactate and storage temperature on growth and survival of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in Chinese sausage. Food Sci. 21(3):182-196. Li, Y. G., Zhang, F, Wang, Z. T., Hu, Z. B. 2004. Identification and chemical profiling of monacolins in red yeast rice using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Biomed. Ana.l. 35:1101–1112. Maveety, D. J. 1938. U.S Patent. pp. 2, 124, 706. Miller, N. J., Rice-Evans, C., Davies, M. j., Gopinathan, V. and Milner, M. 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clinical Science. 84: 407-412. Moret, S., Populin, T., Conte, L. S. and Cosens, G. 2005. HPLC determination of free nitrogenous compounds of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae), the cause of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia. Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 46: 651-657. Oyaizu, M. 1988. Antioxidative activities of browning products of glucosamine fractionated by organic solvent and thin-layer chromatography. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology. 35: 771-775. Pastrana, L., Blanc, P. J., Santerre ,A. L., Loret, M. O., Goma, G. 1995. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in synthetic media with a strictly controlled nitrogen source. Process Biochem. 30: 333-341. Ribeiro, S. M. R., Chagas, G. M., Campello, A. P. and Kluppe, M. L. W. 1997. Mechanism of citrinin induced dysfunction of mitochondria. V. Effect on the homeostasis of the reactive oxygen specie Cell Biochem. Funct. 15:203-209. Rhee, K. S. 1978. Minimizatio of further lipid peroxidation in the distillation 2- thiobarbituric acid test of fish and meat. J. Food Sci. 43:1776~1781. Rhyu, M. R., Kim, D. K., Kim, H. Y., and Kim, B. K. 2000. Nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta induced by aqueous extract of red rice fermented with Monascus ruber. J. Ethnopharmacol. 70:29-34. Sakai, K., Kinoshita, H. and Nihira, T. 2009. Identification of mokB involved in monacolin K biosynthesis in Monascus pilosus. Biotechnol. Lett. DOI 10.1007/s10529-009-0093-3. Shimizu, T., Kinoshita, H., Ishihara, S., Sakai, K., Nagai, S. and Nihira, T. 2005. Polyketide synthase gene responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:3453-3457. Shimizu, T., Kinoshita, H., and Nihira, T. 2007. Identification and in vivo functional analysis by gene disruption of ctnA, an activator gene involved in citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(16):5097–5103. Stumbo, C. R. 1948. Bacteriological considerations relating to process evaluation. Food Technol. 2:115-132. Su, Y. C., Wang, J. J., Lin, T. T., and Pan, T. M. 2003. Production of the secondary metabolites gamma-aminobutyric acid and monacolin K by Monascus. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30:41-46. Tarlagis, B. G., B. M. Watts and M. T. Younathan. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitation determination of melonaldehyde in racid foods. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Sci. 37:44-48. Tsuji, K., Ichikawa, T., Tanabe, N., Abe, S., Tarui, S., Nakagawa, Y. 1992. Antihypertensive activities of Beni-Koji extracts and γ-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Jpn. J. Nutr. 50:285-291. Vermeij, T. A. C. and Edelbroek, P. M. 2004. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapentin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde and fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography B. 810: 297-303. Wang, F. S., Jiang, Y. N. and Lin, C. W. 1995. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation in Chinese-style sausage using vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging. Meat Sci. 40:93-101. Wong, H. C., and Bau, Y. S. 1977. Pigmentation and antibacterial activity of fast neutron- and X-Ray-induced strains of Monascus purpureus Went. Plant Physiol. 60:578-581. Wong, H. C., Koehler, P. E., 1981. Production and isolation of an antibiotic from Monascus purpureus and its relationship to pigment production. Journal of Food Science. 46:589-592. Xie, X., Watnabe, K., Wojcicki, W. A., Wang, C. C. C. and Tang, Y. 2006. Biosynthesis of lovastatin analogs with a broadly specific acyltransferase. Chemistry&Biology. 13:1161-1169. Yamaguchi, T., Takamura, H., Matoba, T. and Terao, J. 1988. HPLC method for evalution of the free radical scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Bioscience, Biotechnology&Biochemistry. 62: 1201-1204. Yasukawa, K., Takahashi, M., Yamanouchi, S., and Takido, M. 1996. Inhibitory effect of oral administration of Monascus pigment on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Oncology. 53:247-249. Yeh, C. H. and Chou, C. C. 1994. Behavior of Campylobacter jejuni during the manufacture and storage of Chinese-style sausage. Food Microbiol. 11:461-466. Yen, G. C. and Chen, H. Y. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43: 27-32. Young, L. L., Reviere, R. D. and Cole, A. B. 1988. Fresh red meat: a place to apply modified atmospheres. Food Technol. 42(9): 65-69. Yu, C. F. and Chou, C. C. 1997. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Chinese-style sausage during the drying step of the manufacturing process as affected by the drying condition and curing agent. J. Sci. Food Agric. 74:551-556.
摘要: 
紅麴古稱丹麴、赤麴、紅曲,為米經蒸煮後加入紅麴菌(Monascus spp.)經生長、乾燥之產物,在台灣及東南亞地區常用於釀酒、製作豆腐乳、食品著色劑、香料和肉品防腐等,亦可作中藥材料使用,近代科學研究證實其為富含營養成分。本研究以紅麴菌接種於米飯上製備紅糟,並經壓榨、凍乾後,應用於臘肉之製備,探討紅糟製備期間及臘肉產品,其一般成分及功能性成分之變化。
結果顯示,紅糟製備時其可溶性固形物會隨發酵時間延長而上升,色澤分析方面,其Hunter’s L值呈現下降,而Hunter’s a及Hunter’s b值則呈現上昇之現象。紅糟經壓榨後,其可溶性固形物可達28.1±0.2~28.8±0.2°Brix,因此不易凍結及乾燥。冷凍乾燥後紅糟,其粗蛋白由0.32±0.03 %提升至1.46±0.08 %;粗脂肪則由5.91±0.30 %增加至7.93±0.83 %。
在紅糟部份取代亞硝酸鹽進行臘肉製作方面,臘肉以不同亞硝酸鹽與紅糟之添加量(分別為0.075 %,0 %;0.0375 %,1 %;0 %,1 %;0 %,2 %;0 %,3 %等五組),經醃製42小時後,五種不同樣品在Hunter’s L值的變化與紅糟之添加呈現負相關,而Hunter’s a及Hunter’s b值則呈現正相關之現象。在抗氧化活性方面:清除DPPH能力僅添加亞硝酸鹽者為14.31±0.93 %,而添加紅糟3 %之臘肉可提升至25.19±0.91 %;還原力僅添加亞硝酸鹽者,其吸光值為0.572±0.001,而添加3 %紅糟後可提升至0.903±0.006;總抗氧化力之分析結果則由0.04±0.00 mM as trolox上升至0.13±0.00 mM as trolox;且發現其抗氧化活性與紅糟之添加量呈現正相關。紅糟之GABA經檢測含有0.019±0.001 %,而紅糟臘肉之橘黴素含量則未能檢出。嗜好性品評結果發現與添加亞硝酸鹽與紅糟之比例(0.0375 %,1 %)之臘肉較佳。

Red mold rice (RMR) is a kind of fermented rice by growing Monascus on the cooked rice. The Japanese named it beni koji or aka koji, while the European called it Chinese red rice. RMR is used to make wine and fermented soybean curd in Taiwan and southeast area. In addition, it can be as a coloring agent and seasoning for foods, meat preservative and traditional Chinese medicine as well. It is reported that RMR is considerably rich in nutrition. In this study, RMR was prepared by inoculating a strain of Monascus purpureus BCRC 33327 into cooked rice, and semi-solid state fermentation was performed. Finally, the fermentation broth was pressed and dehydrated by freeze-drying. The dehydrated RMR was then used as one of food additives in preparing the salted and cured meat (SCM) to partially replace sodium nitrite. Changes in components of RMR and SCM were investigated during fermentation of RMR and curing of SCM.
Results showed that the total soluble solid content increased with the fermentation time, and the Hunter's L value appeared going down, but Hunter's a and b values showed increase. The total soluble content reached to 28.1~28.8±0.2 oBrix after pressing of RMR, which was found hard to be dried completely. The crude protein content increased from 0.32±0.03% to 1.46±0.08%; while crude fat increased from 5.91±0.30% to 7.93±0.83% during lyophilization of RMR.
Five different ratios of nitrite to RMR at 0.075%: 0%; 0.0375%: 1%; 0%: 1%; 0%: 2%; and 0%: 3%, were used to make SCM. The curing time was 42 hours. Negative relationship between Hunter's L value of SCM and amount of RMR added was found; however, those Hunter's a and b values of SCM appeared positive relationship.
Regarding changes of antioxidant activity, the DPPH scavenging ability was 14.31±0.93% for SCM with nitrite alone; but it was 25.19±0.91% if 3% RMR was used. The reducing power was 0.572±0.001 for SCM with only nitrite being added, while it was 0.903±0.006 for that of adding 3% RMR. Similarly, the total antioxidant capacity increased from 0.04±0.00 mM to 0.13±0.00 mM as trolox. In general, the antioxidant activities of SCM were increased with amount of RMR added. Content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of RMR was 0.019±0.001%, while citrin was unable to be detected in SCM. Results of sensory evaluation by Preference test revealed that SCM prepared by adding nitrite and RMR at ratio of 0.0375% to 1% won the highest score.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51972
其他識別: U0005-1808201117550600
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.