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Characteristics and Affecting factors of Atmospheric Acidic Gases and Particulates
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綜合四波大陸沙塵事件日氣膠之量測結果顯示，沙塵期間大氣PM2.5-10質量濃度為非沙塵期間的1.8 - 2.3倍本研究藉由2000年3月與2002年1月至12月氣膠及氣體氣體污染物之採樣結果，分析大陸沙塵過境對本地氣膠物化特性的影響，並瞭解光化氣膠及前趨氣體污染物濃度季節性之分佈。此外，利用化學反應理論計算硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽之生成速率，藉由生成速率靈敏度分析之結果，瞭解光化氣膠生成之影響因子。
綜合四波大陸沙塵事件日氣膠之量測結果顯示，沙塵期間大氣PM2.5-10質量濃度為非沙塵期間的1.8 - 2.3倍，波峰介於3.2 - 5.6 um粒徑範圍之微粒濃度明顯增加，顯示沙塵主要影響本地區粗微粒之濃度。此外，沙塵事件日期間PM2.5-10之地殼元素Ca、Mg、Al及Fe與海鹽氣膠Cl-及Na+為非沙塵事件日的2 - 3倍，Ca/Al及Mg/Al之比值分別介於0.6 - 0.9及0.21 - 0.25之間，較非沙塵事件日的0.02 - 0.47及 0.1 - 2.1穩定，顯示沙塵事件日期間本地氣膠之地殼元素Ca、Mg及Al可能來自於同一污染源。
由光化氣膠及前趨氣體污染物監測結果顯示，PM2.5之硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽及銨鹽濃度分別為8.0、6.0及4.6 ug m-3，共佔PM2.5質量比例的44 %，硝酸鹽微粒濃度有明顯季節性變化，其最低值出現在夏季及秋季。前趨氣體SO2、HNO2、HNO3及NH3濃度分別為6.1、2.9、1.9及8.5 ug m-3，夏季採樣期間HNO2容易光解，因此其濃度為冬季的0.6倍，相反地在此高溫的季節，NH4NO3微粒容易揮發形成HNO3及NH3，故夏季HNO3與NH3濃度高於冬季量測的結果。硫(Fs)及氮(Fn)轉換比例平均分別為46及17 %，由日間Fn與O3及夜間Fn與相對濕度分別呈現高度正相關，顯示日、夜間NO2轉換成HNO3及NO3-之機制及影響因子不同。
在污染物生成速率推估上，雲內機制硫酸鹽之生成速率介於10 - 224 % h-1，約為氣相機制硫酸鹽生成速率之100 倍，然而影響雲內機制硫酸鹽生成之主要因子為H2O2濃度及雲內含水量與pH值。此外，採樣期間NO2轉換成HNO3及NO3-之速率分別介於0.2 - 13 % h-1 及 0.1 - 7.1 % h-1，由靈敏度分析結果顯示，日夜間影響硝酸氣體及硝酸鹽微粒生成之因子主要為溫度及相對濕度。
This study mainly investigated the influence of Asian dust-storm (AD) on ambient aerosols. Meanwhile, seasonal variations of secondary aerosols and their precursors were also studied. The rates and affecting factors on secondary aerosol formation were also investigated by theoretical evaluations regarding potential SO2 and NO2 oxidant reactions.
Four AD events were observed in central Taiwan during the years of 2000 and 2002. The results indicated that the concentrations of PM2.5-10 in the AD events were 1.8 - 2.3 times higher than those in the non-dust events. The aerosol concentrations in the range of 3.2 - 5.6 um increased significantly, indicating that the coarse particles were influenced by the AD dust. The concentration of the crustal elements Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and sea salt species Na+ and Cl- during the dust episode exceeded the mean concentrations in the non-dust episode by factors of 2 - 3. It is noted that during the dust event, the ratio of Mg/Al in PM2.5-10 ranged from 0.21 to 0.25 while that of Ca/Al ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, levels more constant than those obtained in non-dust periods. This indicated that the ratios of Mg/Al and Ca/Al might be as good tracers of AD events.
The annual concentrations of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were 8.0, 6.0 and 4.6 ug m-3, respectively, and these inorganic species occupied approximately 44 % of PM2.5 fractions. Particulate nitrate exhibited significant seasonal variations with lower levels observed in summer and autumn. On the other hand, the annual average concentrations of SO2, HNO2, HNO3 and NH3 were 6.1, 2.9, 1.9 and 8.5 ug m-3, respectively. Lower HNO2 concentrations in summer have been attributed to the photolytic reactions. Oppositely, HNO3 and NH3 displayed higher concentrations in the summer. This can be explained by the higher volatility of particulate NH4NO3 under high temperature. Moreover, the annual average sulfur conversion ratio (Fs) and nitrogen conversion ratio were 46 and 17 %, respectively. Fn was well correlated with ozone during daytime, whereas Fn correlated well with relative humidity during nighttime. The results suggested that the mechanisms and affecting factors on the oxidant of NO2 to HNO3 and NO3- were different during daytime and nighttime.
Finally, the formation rates of secondary aerosols were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the formation rates of SO2 to particulate sulfate in in-cloud process ranged from 10 - 224 % h-1, which were 100 times higher than those of gas-phase conversion. The formations of sulfate were mainly dependent on H2O2 concentrations, water content and pH value in the cloud. Furthermore, the calculated formation rates of NO2 to HNO3 and NO3- were from 0.2 - 13 % h-1 and 0.1 - 7.1 % h-1, respectively. The factors affecting gaseous and particulate nitrate formation were temperature and relative humidity.
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