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標題: 應用礫石/碎石浸水式生物濾床削減河川含氮量之研究
Nitrogen Removal of Polluted Riverwater in Submerged Biofilter of Gravel/Chippings
作者: 陳鐘榮
Chen, Chung-Jung
關鍵字: Entrophication;優養化;Submerged Biofilter;Gravel;Chippings;Nitrification;Denitrification;浸水式生物濾床;礫石;碎石;硝化;脫硝
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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在河川廢水中,仍含有不少的氮(包括氨氮、有機氮及硝酸鹽氮等),而水中的氮是造成水體優養化(Eutrophication)的原因之一,不僅會降低水中的溶氧,影響水源用水的安全與衛生,亦會破壞水中原有的自然生態環境。且以92年放流水標準(氨氮不得超過10 mg/L,硝酸鹽氮不得超過50 mg/L)來看,許多污水廠之廢水因含氮濃度過高,無法合乎該標準,將此廢水排放至河川中即帶來更為嚴重的污染。而去除廢水中含氮物質的方法,可採用物理、化學或生物法,其中以生物處理法是最經濟的方法之一。所以本實驗利用一0.45m ×0.45m × 1.8m(長×寬×高)的鋼板水槽來當作反應槽稱為浸水式生物濾床,共有三段分別為進水區(高0 ~ 0.5m)、介質區(高0.5 ~ 1.3m)、出水區(高1.3 ~ 1.8m)。操作上係利用碎石與礫石當介質,採以不曝氣、100 %出流水迴流,批次下進行除氮之研究,藉由不同污染源(彰化縣-溪湖大排與台中市-綠川河水)以比較進出流水中各水質項目的變化,進而找出最適當的操作條件並進行水質參數的推估。
由結果顯示,在氮的去除方面,無論對溪湖排水(NH4+負荷為58.1 g/與綠川河水(負荷為78.4 g/而言,去除率分別可達85%(滯留時間= 6天以上)與84%(滯留時間= 8天以上),而對兩者原廢水之TN的去除效果似乎不太理想,究其原因可能為(1)處理之迴流水中仍含有過高的溶氧(溪湖:3mg/L;綠川:1 mg/L以上),溶氧偏高以致影響脫硝反應;(2)進流水中的碳源不足(溪湖:TCOD/NO3- = 0.4 ~ 2.2 mg/L;綠川:0.3 ~ 1.2 mg/L)或大都為生物難分解性所造成。不過,此時的放流水NH4+ 濃度分別可從10.7 mg/L、7.9 mg/L降至1.73 mg/L與1.21 mg/L以下,可達92年之放流水標準,所以單就硝化來說,此系統應該是可行的。另外在體積需求推估方面,將體積負荷與污染物之處理效能進行二元一次線性迴歸分析,可知:BOD、COD、TKN、NH4+、TP 具有良好之再線性,R2分別可達0.85、0.83、0.83、0.83、0.94。將此參數反推,估算出1510m3 對溪湖或綠川河水即可處理1000人所排放之廢水量使達乙類河川水體標準。

It is common to designate different species and concentrations of nitrogen (e.g. NH3+-N, Org-N and NO3--N) in the polluted riverwater. Nitrogen is known to cause the entrophication in a water body. The existence of nitrogen in the water not only consumes the dissolved oxygen, but also has an adverse impact upon the safety and hygiene of drinking water. Based on the effluent standard in 2003 promulgated by Taiwan EPA (NH3+-N<10 mg/L , NO3--N<50 mg/L), many wastewater treatment plants will not be able to meet this requirement. Thus, removal of nitrogen in the wastewater is necessary and urgent. Nitrogen can be removed by physical, chemical, or biological methods, among which biological manner is the most economical one. In this study, a steel-made vessel of Submerged Biofilter (L * W * H = 0.45m * 0.45m * 0.18m) was set up to investigate the removal of nitrogen. The system has three sections in all which are in the order of influent area (H = 0 ~ 0.5m), reaction vessel (H = 0.5 ~ 1.3m), effluent area (H = 1.3 ~1.8 m) respectively. Two types of riverwater were introduced into the reactor vessel in a series of batches. No aeration device was employed to enhance the oxygen dissolution. Gravel and chippings acted as fitter bed material which support most bacterial on the surface.
From the result it was found that, as to river of high loading (Xihu) under retention time of 8 days and NH4+ loading of 78.4 g/, 84% of NH4+ removal could be reached, but as to low loading (Lyuchuan) 88% nitrification efficiency could be reached under 6 days retention time and 58.1 g/ NH4+ loading. Performance of denitrification was not as good as nitrification, with a low rate of the total nitrogen removal efficiency. The poor performance of denitrification could be due to: (i) the recirculation flow brought back the flow also the dissolves oxygen which made the denitrification unfavorable, (ii) although the BOD in the influent could serve as the electron donor for denitrification, the BOD was not quite biodegradable and thus made the denitrification unfavorable.
其他識別: U0005-3107200614313500
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