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標題: 台灣地區家禽流行性感冒病毒之分子流行病學與分子診斷技術研究
The Study on the Molecular Epidimiology and Molecular Diagnosis of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan
作者: 謝快樂
關鍵字: 應用研究;Avian Influenza;畜牧獸醫類;家禽流行性感冒;反轉錄聚合?鏈反應;親緣樹分析;分子流行病學;AI;Reverse Transtription-polymerase Chain Reaction;Phylogenetic Analysis;Molecular Epidemiology
香港地區於1997爆發H5N1型家禽流行性感冒大流行,此H5N1病毒可感染人類,引起重大經濟損失與居民之恐慌.最近針對此H5N1病毒來源研究發現,此病毒之H5基因來源可能為廣東省之鵝,N1基因的來源則仍不明,而其NP、M、PA、PB1與PB2等所謂"internal"基因則與分離自鵪鶉之H9N2病毒極為相近,而H9N2病毒在香港已有感染兒童之報導,這些禽類H9N2病毒之 "internal gene",包括PA、PB2、NP、M2等基因亦確實含有與人源AI病毒相類似序列.因此,一個可能的推測為原先存在於鵝之H5雖為禽類強毒,但卻不會感染人;而存在於鵪鶉之H9N2雖為弱毒,但卻有感染人類之可能.在1997間所分離之香港H5N1強毒,可能重組自鵝之H5N1病毒與鵪鶉之H9N2病毒.台灣人口稠密,飼養雞群密度又高,且位於各種候鳥南遷北移必經之道,一旦有強毒AI入侵且擴大蔓延,則後果必極嚴重,因此類似香港H5N1之疫情絕不容許在台灣發生.而預防之道主要有二,一為防止H5及H7亞型強毒株之入侵,二為探討本省已存在AI病毒之 "internal gene" 是否有與香港能感染人類之AI相近者,如果有上述二種情形,則必須設法予以清除,以防止其擴大蔓延.上述目標之達成,首先需建立AI病毒之快速診斷技術,以便在病毒入侵之早期即予以鑑定,進而即予以阻絕清除.本計劃擬建立AI病毒所有 "internal gene" 之快速PCR診斷及核酸定序技術,配合HA與NA gene之PCR診斷及核酸定序技術,對本省歷來所分離到之AI病毒進行分子流行病學分析,建立基本資料,並對1999-2000間從野鳥或家禽中分離到之AIV進行監控,以防止AI在本省造成危害.

The outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza virus (AI) in Hong Kong in 1997 caused a tremendous economic loss and a great panic among residents. Recent reports reveal that the H5N1 virus isolated in Hong Kong in 1997 obtained their H5 gene from a virus isolated from geese in 1996 in Guangdong. In addition, the internal genes (NP, MP, PA, PB1, PB2 and NS) of the 1997 Hong Kong H5N1 viruse appears to obtain from a virus (H9N2) isolated from quails in Hong Kong. The H9N2 virus was reported to infect children in Hong Kong, which reflects the finding that the internal genes (PA, PB2, NP and M2) of the Hong Kong H9N2 virus contain "human-like" sequences. The geese H5 virus, though highly pathogenic in avian species, does not appear to infect human beings. In contrast, the quail H9 virus is low pathogenic, but did infect human beings. One possibility is therefore raised that the 1997 Hong Kong H5N1 virus was originating from a recombination of the geese H5 virus and the quail H9 virus. Taiwan has a high population of both human beings and domestic chickens. In addition, Taiwan is located at the center of migration routes of many free-living birds. These birds might carry a highly pathogenic AIV into this island and cause an outbreak of AI similar to that occurred in Hong Kong in 1997. Such a case is not allowed to happen in Taiwan, and should be prevented in advance. The strategy of prevention could be divided into two categories. The first is to prevented the invasion of highly pathogenic strains (H5 and H7 serotypes) of AIV. The second is to understand whether in Taiwan there is a virus containing "internal genes" similar to those found in the Hong Kong H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. Both of the two strategies rely on the development of a rapid diagnostic procedure to identify these viruses in the very beginning of their invasion or finding. We therefore propose to develop a rapid PCR and direct sequencing procedure to identify all the internal genes of AIV isolated i n Taiwan. Together with a similar procedure developed to identify viral HA and NA genes in an accompanying research project, we will be able to obtain the complete nucleotide sequences of AIV isolated in Taiwan. These sequence data will be used to conduct phylogenetic analysis in order to understand the epidemiologic AIV in Taiwan. These techniques will also be used to analyze viruses isolated in 1999- 2000 or later. The diagnostic procedure developed and the information obtained in this project will contribute greatly to the prevention of the outbreak of AI in Taiwan.
其他識別: 89科技-6.1-檢-56
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所

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