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Characteristics of PM2.5, acidic and basic gases and conversion rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in central Taiwan
|關鍵字:||PM2.5;PM2.5;acidic and basic gases;conversion rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate;TWMC;酸鹼性氣體;二氧化硫轉化率;時間加權平均污染物風花圖||出版社:||環境工程學系所||引用:||1. Ammann, M., M. Kalberer, D. T. Jost, L. Tobler, E. Rössler, D. Piguet, H. W. Gäggeler and U. Baltensperger, “Heterogeneous Production of Nitrous Acid on Soot in Polluted Air Masses,” Nature, Vol. 395, pp. 157-160 (1998). 2. Amount, B., F. Chervier and S. Laval, “Contribution of HONO Source to the NOx/HOx/O3 Chemistry in the Polluted Boundary Layer,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, pp. 487-498 (2003). 3. Ansari, A. S. and S. N. Pandis, “Response of Inorganic PM to Precursor Concentrations,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 32, pp. 2706-2714 (1998). 4. Asman, W. A. H. and M. A. Van Jaarsveld, “A Variable Resolution Transport Model Applied for NHx in Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 26, pp. 445-464 (1992). 5. Aumont, B., S. Madronich, M. Ammann, M. Kalberer, U. Baltensperger, D. Hauglustaine and F. 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由2005年4月及9月量測結果顯示，內陸南投測站PM2.5平均濃度在4月份觀測期間為41.3 μ gm-3，9月份觀測期間為65.3 μ gm-3，兩月份觀測期間氣膠主要離子成份為硫酸鹽，臭氧濃度在9月份觀測比4月份觀測期間高，此外硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽與臭氧最大值有良好相關。時間加權平均濃度顯示二氧化硫及硫酸鹽主要來自於台中，由採樣觀測結果顯示，9月份觀測期間有較多人為活動與氣象條件溫度及風向因素，導致影響微粒及氣體分佈。
另外2006年5月與10月同步於中台灣沿海二林測站及內陸南投測站進行量測，結果顯示PM2.5平均濃度在二林及南投分別為32.9 μg m-3及41.1 μg m-3，兩地硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽及銨鹽佔PM2.5約44 %，顯示其主要為二次氣膠經由化學反應而生成，與過去在中台灣地區量測結果類似。南投測站PM2.5、HNO3、NO3－、NO、NO2 及 CO濃度高於二林測站，原因為南投測站臨近高速公路，伴隨地形因素加上擴散不良，導致南投測站濃度偏高，利用化學理論計算硝酸鹽濃度，與南投與二林量測之硝酸鹽相關性分別為0.74與0.66，顯示使用之硝酸鹽化學反應機制適用於沿海及內陸測站。
此外推估硫轉化率係選定相距約15公里之兩測站，分別為霧峰測站及南投測站，採樣觀測結果顯示日間PM2.5與硫酸鹽較高，可能受到人為活動影響。由風場分佈圖顯示霧峰位於上風而南投位於下風，硫轉化比率下風測站高於上風測站，經由實驗推估硫轉化率介於5到9 % hr-1，硫轉化率值與國內外相關研究結果比較相似，另外利用時間加權平均風花圖分析日間南投PM2.5與二氧化硫結果主要來自台中地區。
This study mainly investigated the characteristics of PM2.5 and gaseous species in the inland area of central Taiwan. Moreover, characterization of PM2.5, acidic and basic gases near coastal in central Taiwan were also studied. Subsequently the conversion rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in central Taiwan was also investigated by experimental results.
Measurements of PM2.5 and acidic gases were conducted at an inland site of Taichung basin during the sampling timings in the month of April and September of 2005. Results showed that the average PM2.5 concentration were 41.3 μg m-3 during April and 65.3 μg m-3 during September. The major particle-phase ionic species was sulfate during both sampling months. Ozone concentration was higher during September. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations were well correlated with daily maximum ozone concentration. The time weight mean concentration data showed that the increased concentration of gas-phase sulfur dioxide and sulfate were transported from the Taichung city, which is located close to the sampling site. Based on our above obtained results, during September period showed more anthropogenic impact on the aerosol and gaseous distribution favored by meteorological factors, higher ambient temperature and wind direction.
Similarly, measurements were conducted at inland Nantou and coastal Erlin of central Taiwan region during May and October of 2006. The PM2.5 concentrations were 41.1 and 32.9 μg m-3 at Nantou and Erlin sites respectively. The average concentration of three main ionic species SO42－, NO3－ and NH4＋accounted to 44 % for PM2.5 indicating that the formation was mainly via secondary process. These percentage of ionic SO42－, NO3－ and NH4＋ were similarly with other published in central Taiwan. The PM2.5, HNO3, NO3－, NO, NO2 and CO were highest at Nantou site compared to Erlin site. Based on the results of this study we conclude that, higher traffic emissions coupled with poor ventilation due to topography of the area caused higher HNO3, NO3－, NO, NO2 and CO concentrations in Nantou. Furthermore, the evaluation of nitrate aerosol showed the correlation coefficients between observed and calculated concentrations were 0.74 and 0.66 at Nantou and Erlin, respectively.
Finally, to investigate the sulfur conversion rate the measurements were taken at two different sites in central Taiwan. The distance between two sites is about 15 km. Results showed that the average ratio of PM2.5 and SO42－ was higher during daytime probably due to the anthropogenic activities. Wind filed map also clearly displayed that Wufong was located upwind and Nantou was located downwind during daytime. Sulfur conversion ratio in the downwind site was higher than upwind site. Experimental data showed that sulfur conversion rate between these sites was 5 - 9 % hr－1. The value of sulfur conversion rate was consistent with other published. The increased PM2.5 and SO2 concentrations recorded in downwind site was from the direction of Taichung city during daytime.
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