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Studies on the Investigation, Prevention and Treatment of Duck Viral Hepatitis
|關鍵字:||應用研究;Duck Viral Hepatitis;畜牧獸醫類;鴨病毒性肝炎;鴨源小核糖核酸病毒;演化分析;Duck Originated Picornaviruses;Phylogenetic Analysis||摘要:||
鴨病毒性肝炎(Duck viral hepatitis)是由鴨源小核糖核酸病毒(picornaviruses)所引起幼齡鴨的重度致死性疾病，以傳播迅速、病程短及引起肝的出血性病變為特徵。本病在世界大多數養鴨地區都有發生，台灣曾發生過兩次大流行，分別在1971年和1990年，第一次大流行危害200萬隻以上，幸以使用耐過鴨免疫血清及活毒疫苗後，本病獲得控制；第二次大流行造成15萬隻以上的幼鴨死亡，歸因於水禽小病毒(waterfowl parvovirus)的混合感染及種鴨對DHV-1疫苗免疫不確實。最近2008年台灣各地皆有疑似鴨病毒性肝炎的病例發生，根據研究台灣目前至少有3種以上的鴨源小核糖核酸病毒存在，其中DHV-1及新血清型鴨病毒性肝炎病毒(N-DHV)這兩種血清型的病毒，對3週齡以下的雛鴨都具高病原性，均可造成80%以上的死亡率，並出現相似的臨床症狀。本研究將對發生病例的鴨場進行追蹤調查，分離病毒，對病毒的結構蛋白、3D及2C基因進行分析，來探討這些病毒的特性、可能來源及防制之道，以作為防疫機關制訂防疫檢疫策略之參考。
Duck viral hepatitis(DVH) caused by duck originated picornaviruses is an acute lethal disease of ducklings. The disease is characterized by acute, rapidly spreading, and enlarged liver mottled with hemorrhages. DVH exists widely in the world. There were two epidemics of DVH in 1971 and 1990 in Taiwan, respectively. The first caused more than two hundred million deaths in ducklings and then used immune sera collected from the infected and survived ducks and a Duck hepatitis virus type I(DHV-1) vaccine(5886 strain) to control this epidemic. The second brought more than 150,000 ducklings deaths. The reasons were suggested that ducklings were co-infection waterfowl parvovirus and the adult flocks had inadequacy practice of DHV-1 vaccine. In 2008, there were some cases similar DVH reported in Taiwan. According to some investigations showed that three serotypes of duck originated picornaviruses, DHV-1, new serotype duck hepatitis virus(N-DHV) and Duck picornavirus(DPV) exist in Taiwan. The two serotypes DHV, DHV-1 and N-DHV, are highly virulent to three weeks old ducklings and cause more than 80% mortality, respectively. These age ducklings infected either DHV-1 or N-DHV had similar clinical signs and pathologies. The object of this study is to isolate DHV in duck farms occurred DVH and analyze the structure protein, 3D, and 2C sequence of the isolated DHVs. The epidemiology and pathogenesis data obtained in this study are able to provide government as the useful orientation for inspection and quarantine works.
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