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標題: 高效鹼性植物纖維素生產乙醇之微生物技術開發
The Development of Microbial Technology for Producing Plant Cellulosic Ethanol by High Efficiency with Alkaline Condition.
作者: 楊秋忠
關鍵字: 能源工程;應用研究;Ethanol-from-cellulose (EFC), Bio-energy, Biomass, Microbial enzymes.;纖維素乙醇;生物能源;稻草;纖維素
石油價格的高漲導致生質能源受到全球的重視,國內之發展,在各種廢棄物再生利用上,尚有待利用微生物開發高效生產能源。由於微生物分解植物節桿或殘體之纖維素的效率有限,是生產纖維素乙醇之瓶頸,因為纖維素是位在植物細胞壁中,與蛋白質、半纖維素、木質素等聚合結纏一起,與一般研究用的純纖維素培養的狀態大大不同。因此,利用植物有機廢物在做為能源應用時,就得考慮植物殘體的細胞立體構造的問題,才能有效利用植物纖維素及殘體,現今纖維素分解常採用強硫酸分解纖維素成為糖分子,要回收糖分子的層析過程太繁瑣及成本高。有鑑於現有科技利用植體纖維素之瓶頸,本研究將利用嗜鹼性菌在鹼性條件下快速利用農業廢棄物(稻草)鬆解植體纖維素及半纖維,經轉化成為糖分子及乙醇。本研室在研究有機物分解過程中在本土分離出一種嗜鹼性菌種Deinococcusficus (Lai, et al., 2006),及另一株強鹼蛋白分解菌Tepidimonastaiwanensis(Chen, et al., 2006),該二菌均具有在強鹼下分解蛋白質、脂肪、澱粉及β-glucosidase 之鬆解細胞壁功能。本土新菌種D. ficus CC-FR2-10及其他有利菌株先處理鬆解及分解植物殘體細胞壁,並篩選出優良菌種及組合菌群。第二年將利用強鹼作用快速所得之纖維素、半纖維素及分解產物,用以本土可分解之酵母菌及Clostridium 菌系,進行最有效之乙醇生產,以便開發高效及降低乙醇生產成本之技術。

The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel has been steadily increasing around the worldfor a number of reasons. Ethanol can be made synthetically from petroleum or by microbialconversion of biomass materials through fermentation. Ethanol-from-cellulose (EFC)holds great potential due to the widespread availability, abundance, and relatively low costof cellulosic materials. Cellulose molecules consist of long chains of glucose molecules asdo starch molecules, but have a different structural configuration. These structuralcharacteristics plus the tangle by lignin makes cellulosic materials more difficult tohydrolyze than starchy materials. Agricultural residues represent a tremendous resourcebase for biomass ethanol production. Agricultural residues, in the long term, would be thesources of biomass that could support substantial growth of the ethanol industry. Acidhydrolysis or the thermo-chemical saccarification of the cellulosic biomass is not costeffective. Hence, enzymatic saccarification process is extensively being studiedworldwide in major laboratories. Taiwan generates a large amount of cellulosic biomass,which is not trapped efficiently as an alternative energy source. The objective of thisstudy is to develop a cost effective technology for conversion of cellulosic materials intobio-energy (ethanol) utilizing the microbial system. The fermentation method uses threesteps: (1) the formation of a solution of fermentable sugars, (2) the fermentation of thesesugars to ethanol, and (3) the separation and purification of the ethanol, usually bydistillation. Isolation of bacteria from different environmental segments resulted inisolation and characterization of several novel genus and species of bacteria in our lab.Further studies on their dynamics of microbial enzymes have given scope for theemployment of these interesting novel bacterial species for bio-energy production. Tworecently described alkaliphilic bacterial species Deinococcus ficus (Lai et al., 2006) andTepidimonas taiwanensis (Chen et al., 2006) with the activities of protease, lipase,amylase, β-glucosidase etc. will be utilized for the first step of cellulose degradation toproduce sugars. In the subsequent fermentation step ethanol can be produced by yeast andClostridium systems.
其他識別: NSC96-ET-7005-002-ET
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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