Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52972
標題: 氣候變遷及農業氣象對農作物的影響研究(II)
Effects of Global Climate Change and Agrometeorology to Agricultural Production (II)
作者: 申雍
朱鈞
廖志翔
林俊隆
陳國彥
翁仁憲
關鍵字: 其他(農);基礎研究;Vegetables;識覺;蔬菜;農業適應;農業氣象災害;農業技術轉移決策支援系統;發育速率;氣象災害;氣候變遷;氣候;雨害;物候模式;地方風;因應方式;生產潛能;生產量;生長;水稻;大氣環流模式;土壤排水;下坡風;Soil Drainage;Rice;Rain Damage;Production;Potential Yield
摘要: 
由於大氣組成份改變造成溫室效應的增強,促成地球的溫暖化,也因此引發全球氣候逐漸發生改變.由於氣候變化會干擾農作物的生產過程與產量,因而有關未來糧食安全供應的問題以及糧食生產技術的修正已成為全球各國關注的重點.臺灣地區位於亞洲大陸與太平洋交接之低緯地帶,季風氣候特徵明顯,且島上之高大山系呈南北走向與季風之風向斜交,不僅致使局部地區氣象環境變化多端,且氣象災害種類多且頻繁.本計畫之全程目標即在於: (1) 瞭解全球氣候變遷對臺灣地區農作物生產的衝擊,進而提供可能的因應措施與策略; (2) 調查並開發農民防護農業氣象災害之調適方法,以減少氣象災害對農作物生產的負面影響.本年度的研究重點包含: (1) 利用決策支援系統評估氣象因素對糧食生產之影響:擬利用農業技術轉移決策支援系統(DSSAT)評估降水對臺灣地區水稻生產的影響;並建立臺灣地區性水稻生產與氣象資料庫,以瞭解各地區歷年稻作生產與當時各氣象要素變化(含災變天氣)之影響. (2) 臺灣地區水稻品種物候模式的開發:擬探討臺灣地區水稻品種之發育速率與氣溫、日長等氣象因子間的關係,提供DSSAT模式中有關臺灣地區水稻品種之遺傳參數. (3) 農業災害與農民調適方法之研究:擬探討西螺地區蔬菜生產專業區農民對雨害的防護方法;雲嘉南平原農民對氣象災害識覺及適應方式;以及恆春半島落山風產生的農業災害與農民的適應方式. (4) 氣候變遷情境(scenario)對農作物生長潛祖G分別包括: (1) 瞭解降雨對水稻生產之影響. (2) 建立臺灣地區性水稻生產量與氣象環境資料庫. (3) 提供DSSAT模式有關台灣水稻品種的遺傳參數. (4) 減少雨害對蔬菜的損傷,具有穩定夏季蔬菜生產、確保農民收益、穩定物價等功效. (5) 瞭解雲嘉南地區農民對主要氣象災害的識覺,以及對各種災害所採取的因應措施與防災的態度,可作為防災教育宣導與推廣工作的參考. (6) 瞭解恆春半島落山風造成的農業災害類型,農民對落山風災害的識覺,以及對各種災害所採取的因應措施與防災的態度,可作為防災教育宣導與推廣工作的參考. (7) 提供臺灣地區主要梗稻品種在不同日射、氣溫、根溫環境下生產潛能的基礎資料,是因應氣氣候變遷對梳菜生產衝擊之重要參考依據.

Global warming, as results of changes in atmospheric constituents, induces global climate change. Since agriculture production may be significantly affected by global climate change, problems about food supply and proper management practices are the main focus all over the world. Taiwan locates at the junction of Asian continent and Pacific ocean and dominated by monsoon climate. However, mountains in the island, lies mainly in north-south direction, intersect with the predominant wind direction and thus produces many local climatic zones and agrometeorological disasters often occurs. The main goals of this project are (1) to evaluate the impact of climate change to agricultural production in Taiwan and provide response strategies, and (2) to survey the attitude of farmers to agrometeorological disasters and develop methods to reduce the damages in crop production. The research of this year emphasized in (1) Evaluating the effects of agrometeorological factors to crop production by decision support systems. The work included in this topic are using DSSAT model to evaluate the effect of rain to rice production, and establishing a rice-yield database and a meteorological database for various climatic region in Taiwan. (2) Developing a phenological model for rice. The work included in this topic are studying the relation among rice development rate, atr temperature and duration sun shine in order to provide those genetic coefficients needed in DSSAT model. (3) Surveying the attitude and preventive methods of farmers to agrometeorological disasters. The work included in this topic are developing preventive methods for rain damages to vegetables in Silo area, surveying the attitude of farmers to agrometeorological disasters in South-West plain and in Hengchun peninsula. (4) Evaluating crop potential yield under various climatic change scenarios. The work included in this topic are studying the growth pattern, potential yield and rice quality of major rice cultivar grr are (1)understanding the effects of precipitation to rice production. (2) establishing a rice-yield database and a meteorological database for various climatic region in Taiwan. (3) provide needed genetic coefficients of major rice cultivar in Taiwan to DSSAT model. (4) reduce rain damages to vegetables and stabilize the vegetable production in summer. (5) understand the attitude of farmers to agrometeorological disasters in South-West plain, which is very helpful to extension work in the future. (6) understand the attitude of farmers to agrometeorological disasters in Hengchun peninsula, which is very helpful to extension work in the future. (7) providing the growth pattern, potential yield and rice quality ovarious solar radiation, air temperature and root temperature conditions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52972
其他識別: 89科技-1.9-糧-61
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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