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The Laws and Systems Governing Genetically Modified Organisms in European Union
1.Title: The Laws and Systems Governing Genetically Modified Organisms in European Union.2.Research objective: There are some purposes of this project.The first one is to analysize the frameworks regulated by European Union ( EU )with respect to Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMOs ).The second one is to find some experiences with implementing the GMOs'regulations and negotiating with among members in EU or negotiating between EU and U.S.A..Finally, this project will draw some policy implications from EU's regulations and experiences to get sound solutions for international or national GMOs'problems faced by R.O.C..3.Agent of execution: 1.Prof.Dr.Wan-Tran Huang: Department of Agricultural Marketing, National Chung Hsing University, R.O.C..2.Prof.Dr.Schug: Bonn University, Germany.4.Project abstract: The government of R.O.C.had devoted to joining WTO for many years.The good result may come to be this year.The new round on agricultural agreement under WTO began from 2000.It is very important for Council of Agriculture ( COA )of R.O.C.to pay attention to some issues which will be debated by members of WTO with respect to agricultural negotiations.Based on the reports of WTO, there are some issues raised by U.S.A., EU, Cairns Group and NTC Group.The issue of GMOs is one of the most disputatious topics.GMO crops have only been planted since 1996, but they already account for 50%of the soybeans and cotton planted in the United States and 30%of the corn.The rapid spread of GMO foods has given rise to a worldwide debate.It is a debate with powerful ramifications politically and economically, as well as in terms of health, the environment, and ethical issues about science and its side effects.In the fall of 1998, the EU adopted the word's first regulation demanding that GMO foods be clearly labeled to allow consumer choice.On October 21, 1999, the EU adopted a 1%threshold, meaning that it was only those foods that contain more than 1%GMO in any ingredient that have to label as containing GMO.The European Parliament rejected two amendments to its proposed revision of EU laws governing GMO in early 2000.EU asserts that GMO legislation must provide a high level of protection for human health and environment, and at the same time allow society to profit from the benefits of these new technologies.GMO foods will increase with the improvement on the genetically engineer technologies.The market access faced by R.O.C.after joining WTO is an inevitable problem.That is to say, R.O.C.should import many kinds of agricultural products or foods from foreign countries, especially from U.S.A.which produces most of GMO crops or foods.It is necessary to wholly understand the regulations of GMO in order to make R.O.C.government, especially to COA, have right actions to govern the GMO problems in the near future.EU has many laws governing GMO and has fruitful experiences with handling GMO problems, so that this project will analysize EU's frameworks regulating GMO to give rise to some lessons from EU and to benefit R.O.C.for making decisions on governing GMO policy.In order to carry out the purposes described above, there are many procedures listed as follows: ( 1 )Collecting data: These data are secondary one including the laws and measures issued by EU for governing GMO, interviewing some officers or people who are working at the office of governing GMO in EU, and some research reports or articles about GMO.( 2 )Visiting the headquarter of EU or some countries such as Germany, France, Denmark, and Holland to understand the situations of importing GMO foods.( 3 )Finally, writing a research report is to give some policy implications drawn from the EU lessons with governing GMO to give R.O.C.regulating GMO issue.5.Prospect of research project: ( 1 )Collecting
1.研究目的: 首是分析歐盟規範GMOs之架構, 其次是尋求歐盟執行GMOs規範之經驗, 以及歐盟各國之間與美國協商的經驗; 最後, 是由此引申對我國農政單位在規範GMOs與國際間協商之政策涵義.2.計畫內容摘要: 我國即將加入WTO, 而新回合的談判亦在2000展開.我農政單位尤應特別注意WTO締盟國之農業協商議題.據WTO的報告, 已經有美國、歐盟、凱因斯集團與NTC集團提出許多協商議題, 而GMOs乃是其中之一較具爭議性的議題.自1996之後, 就開始大量栽種GMO作物, 其中在美國就有50%之大豆與棉花和30%之玉米.由於GMOs食物的快速成長, 致引發世界性爭論, 此爭論內容涉及政治、經濟、人體健康、環境及倫理等的科學效果與其副作用.於1998秋季, 歐盟在世界上首先基於消費者觀點採取對GMO標示的作法; 即於199910月21日, 歐盟採1%的門檻, 指凡食品內含有GMO成份超出1%者就需標示.同時, 歐盟議會在2000初期, 亦否決有關規範GMO之修正, 堅稱GMO的規範必需確保人類健康與環境在一個高的水準, 同時允許社會可得利於此等的新技術.GMO食品將隨著基因工程技術的進步而增加, 而我國在加入WTO後將不可避免市場開放, 即將由國外進口許多農產品, 尤其自生產最多GMO產品的美國, 致我國農政單位有必要深入瞭解GMO議題, 並適時作出適當的協商反應.歐盟有許多規範GMO的法規, 且在處理GMO問題有豐富的經驗.基於此, 本計畫擬分析以歐盟規範GMO法規之架構, 由此獲其經驗, 作為我國農政單位處理GMO問題之政策參考.為達成上述的研究目的, 本計畫所採取的步驟有: ( 1 )收集相關資料: 此等資料包括歐盟規範GMO之法規、措施, 訪問歐盟從事規範官員之意見, 以及有關單位出版的文章.( 2 )赴歐盟總部與相關國家訪問: 如德國、法國、荷蘭、義大利、丹麥, 瞭解其規範GMO的制度與進口的情形.( 3 )期末報告與撰寫研究報告: 彙整有關資料分析結果與意見, 研議我國農政單位規範GMO的政策方向.3.計畫預期效益: ( 1 )收集與瞭解歐盟規範GMO體系的架構, 由此獲得其經驗.( 2 )基於此等經驗, 研提我國農政單位規範GMO食物的政策原則.
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