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標題: 固定污染源煙道排放之TSP、PM10及PM2.5微粒成份組成分析
作者: 黃俊彥
關鍵字: source profile;污染源組成資料;PM10;PM2.5;PM10;PM2.5
出版社: 環境工程學系
分析結果顯示,以6號重油為燃料之燃油鍋爐煙道排放之PM10有69 %至92 %質量集中於PM2.5之間,此外其PM10的主要成份為SO42-(15.3 ±6.9 %)、EC(7.6 ±8.6 %)、Ni(5.4 ±4.9 %)、Fe(5.0 ±4.9 %)、OC(1.9 ±3.5 %)和V(1.0 ±0.8 %)。各鍋爐間排放主要成份相近但含量變異值大,微量金屬元素主要存在於細粒中。重油鍋爐的指標金屬元素為Ni、V, Ni/V比在1.0∼2.1之間,可視為重油燃燒之一特定比值。研究結果亦顯示TSP與PM2.5的微粒組成資料有明顯之差異。
Al、Fe、S、K、Ca及Mg可視為燃煤電廠煙道廢氣主要排放之金屬元素,鋼鐵廠熔鐵爐煙道排放微粒組成資料中,Mn和Fe於PM10中的比例各為13.9 %及8.3 %),水泥廠生料(生料磨)及熟料(冷卻爐)製程中排放微粒成份主要元素均以Ca為主。Ca元素的含量範圍在24∼46%之間,遠超過其他污染源含量,故Ca可視為水泥廠之特徵元素,Ca/Al比值平均為17.9,可視為水泥廠排放之特徵比值。

The purpose of this research is to investigate the characteristics and the chemical compositions of particulate emissions from various major stationary pollution sources in the central Taiwan. The stationary sources included oil-fired boilers, coal-fired power plant, cement ball mill and kiln, steel foundry and steel heating treatment-furnace. Samples were collected with a modified sampling train of the Method 5. Special cyclone inlets designed for collecting PM10 and PM2.5 were used. Particulates collected without using the cyclone inlets were considered as total suspended particulate (TSP). All the samples were collected on quartz filters. Twenty elements were analyzed by high-pressure bomb acid digestion incorporated with ICP-AES or ICP-MS. Eight soluble ions including Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were extracted and analyzed by ion chromatography. Total organic carbon analyzer was used to analyze organic and elemental carbon as well.
The results of the analysis demonstrated 69% to 92% of PM10 emitted from No. 6 fuel oil-fired boilers distributed in the fine particle size range. Furthermore, sulfate, elemental carbon, nickel (Ni), iron, organic carbon and vanadium (V) were the major contents and accounted for 15.3 6.9 %, 7.6 8.6 %, 5.4 4.9 %, 5.0 4.9 %, 1.9 3.5 %, 1.0 0.8 %, respectively. The trace elements mainly distributed in PM2.5. Ni and V were the marked elements for the emissions from oil-fired boilers. Ratios of Ni to V were found to be in the range between 1.0 and 2.1. The result also showed that the compositions of TSP and PM2.5 were significantly different.
Al, Fe, S, K, Ca and Mg were the major elements in particulates emitted from the coal-fired power plant. Results also showed that Mn and Fe were the marked elements for the particulate emissions from steel foundry Mn and Fe accounted for 17.6 % and 13.9 % respectively. Furthermore, Ca was the marked element and accounted for 24 % to 46 % of the emissions from cement ball mill and kiln. The ratio of Ca to Al was 17.9, which could be considered as a marker for the emissions from the cement production.
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