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標題: 流體化鈀觸媒床氧化處理焚化廢氣中有機物之研究
Catalytic oxidation of the organic pollutants present in the incineration flue gas by the fluidized palladium catallyst
作者: 黃新中
Chung, Huang Hsin
關鍵字: catalytic incineration;觸媒焚化;BTEX;PAHs;fluidized catalyst bed;poison;BTEX;PAHs;流體化觸媒床;毒化
出版社: 環境工程學系
相關文獻指出,觸媒焚化的研究大部分VOCs使用模擬氣體而且都應用在傳統工業製程廢氣的處理,這是不同於焚化廢氣中複雜的二次污染物。廢氣中的重金屬、酸性氣體、粉塵都有可能對觸媒造成活性的喪失,而抑制有機物的氧化反應。一般應用在VOCs氧化的研究大多採用固定床式,流體化觸媒床則甚少研究。流體化床具有床溫均勻、高接觸面積、高的質傳效率等優點,再加上流體化床能同時去除過濾粉塵。因此,本研究主要是利用流體化觸媒床探討鈀觸媒對焚化廢氣中有機物BTEX及PAHs的破壞去除率,操作參數包括:(1)不同操作氣速(Uf/Umf =1.5、2.0、2.5)(2)重金屬的影響(Pb、Cr、Cd)(3)酸性氣體的影響(SOx、HCl)(4)水氣的影響。並同時探討三種不同重金屬經流體化觸媒床後在不同大小微粒中的分佈情形。
結果顯示,當操作氣速控制在Uf/Umf =1.5時,BTEX及PAHs去除效果較佳,分別約有85%及99%以上的去除率。當進料中添加重金屬時,Pb及Cd會抑制有機物的氧化反應,但是Cr並不會對鈀觸媒產生明顯的抑制效果。酸性氣體SOx及HCl會吸附在觸媒活性位址,造成觸媒的毒化。水氣的存在則會降低BTEX及PAHs的去除率。三種重金屬經流體化鈀觸媒床後皆趨向於粒徑越小濃度越高。

Incineration is considered to be an effective method to disposing waste, but the emissions of organic compounds in the flue gas have received major attention recently. They are harmful to the environment and human health when they are emitted into the atmosphere. Catalytic incineration has widely applied to destruct VOCs. It can be operated at lower temperature than flame combustion and required less extra fuel and decreases the forming of thermal NOx.
Most studies were carried out with simulated VOCs gases and applied in conventional industrial process. This is different from the complicated secondary contaminants produced from incineration, such as heavy metals, acid gas, and fly ash, They could poison the catalyst and inhibite the oxidation of organics. The catalytic incineration of VOCs can be carried out in fixed and fluidized catalyst beds. Most of them were performed in fixed bed, the catalytic incineration in a fluidized bed were seldom investigated. The fluidized catalyst bed has the advantages of uniform bed temperature, high contact area, and high mass transfer efficiency, it also removal fine particulates simultaneously. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the catalytic destruction removal efficiency of BTEX and PAHs generated from the incineration in a fluidized palladium catalyst. The parameters evaluated include (1) various fluidized velocity (Uf/Umf =1.5, 2.0, 2.5), (2) the effect of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd), (3) the effect of acid gas (SOx and HCl), and (4) the effect of water vapor. Besides, the mass and elemental size distribution of heavy metals prior to and after flowing through the fluidized catalyst bed were also investigated.
The results indicated that it had higher removal destruction remocal of BTEX and PAHs when the fluidized velocity was controlled at Uf/Umf =1.5. When the feedstock contained heavy metals, the presence of Pb and Cd inhibited deep the oxidation of organic compounds, but Cr did not. When the feedstock contained sulfur and PVC(chlorine), they could poison and deactivate the palladium catalyst. The presence of water vapor also decreased the DRE of BTEX and PAHs. The metal concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd are higher in the finer particles after flowing through the fluidized catalyst bed.
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