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Establishment of investigation, monitoring and control of fungi, bacteria, nematode and insect of export Phalaenopsis in greenhouse
|作者:||鍾文鑫, 朱木貴,陳淑佩,蔡東纂||關鍵字:||應用研究;Phalaenopsis;植物保護類;蝴蝶蘭;感染源;Fusarium solani;防治;葉芽線蟲;溫湯浸浴;軟腐病;接種原;抗藥性;蟲害調查;綜合管理技術;Inoculum source;Fusarium solani;Controal;Aphelenchoides;Hot bath;Soft rot disease;Inoculum;Resistance;Pests surveys;Integrated Pest Management||摘要:||
1. 外銷蝴蝶蘭園內黃葉病菌(Fusarium solani)之偵測與防除 前計畫持續監測外銷蝴蝶蘭園內有害真菌相，調查結果顯示，外銷蝴蝶蘭園內仍以Fusarium solani為主要有害真菌。測試芬頓試劑(Fenton’s reagent)對來自蝴蝶蘭不同病原真菌孢子發芽影響，得知稀釋八倍的芬頓試劑能有效抑制F. solani與Colletotrichum gloeosporioides孢子發芽。於藥劑測試上，比較不同方法施用菲克利與芬頓試劑對防治蝴蝶蘭黃葉病的效果，顯示兩種藥劑皆有抑制蝴蝶蘭黃葉病的發病指數，且以澆灌方式施用後，植株發病指數較低。此外亦證實介質含水量為F. solani存活因子之ㄧ。本年度計畫將釐清外銷蝴蝶蘭園內可能之感染源地點，此外亦將以芬頓試劑或其他方法處理與蝴蝶蘭栽培之相關可能資材，祁降低園區內黃葉病之發生與病原菌之族群密度。
2. 蝴蝶蘭根部植物寄生性線蟲之防治 蝴蝶蘭為我國大宗出口花卉之一，近年來於根部、水草以及澆灌水中分離到植物寄生性線蟲，經初步鑑定後確認多數個體屬Aphelenchoides bicadatus；葉芽線蟲多以休眠或脫水狀態存活於植物組織或殘體上，待水分與溫度適合時，便恢復其活性再次感染寄主植物。本試驗欲研擬出加強建立蘭花非疫區生產點之標準作業程序(Standard Operating Procedure, SOP)，於植前以溫湯，或加上農藥處理水草介質，以滅除可能殘存之線蟲。於出口前如發現植栽帶有線蟲，則以溫湯浸浴方式處理，去除可能存於根系之線蟲，以確保達到出口檢疫標準，鞏固本國蝴蝶蘭的出口價值。
3. 外銷蝴蝶蘭園細菌性軟腐病之接種原監控 蝴蝶蘭是台灣為最重要的花卉外銷產業，由於溫室栽培常造成蘭花在高溫多濕的環境下生長，再加上栽培管理不當，常會助長細菌性病害的發生與蔓延，造成蘭園重大之損失。蝴蝶蘭細菌性病害的發生主要病原有三種，分別為褐斑病菌 (Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae)、葉斑病菌 (Burkholderia gladioli) 及軟腐病菌(Pectobacterium chrysanthemi)。其中軟腐病菌寄主範圍廣泛，於蘭科植物中可危害蝴蝶蘭、文心蘭、石斛蘭等，尤其在蝴蝶蘭上更容易發生，因此軟腐病害的發生是蝴蝶蘭栽培過程中最重要的限制因子。為充分瞭解蘭園細菌性軟腐病害之發生現況，擬訂的調查方向包括：(1)對蘭園進行軟腐病害接種原之來源分析；(2)病原分離及病原細菌之抗藥性及抗銅性分析；(3)環境因子及病害發生相關性分析。本年度將詳細了解接種原來源、病原菌抗藥性及環境因子與病害發生之關係，期能進一步了解軟腐病害在蘭園的實際狀況，提出有效病害管理方式，降低軟腐病害之發生率。
4. 外銷蝴蝶蘭之蟲害調查及監測、防治策略之建立 本計畫持續主要調查蝴蝶蘭主要蟲害種類及其週年消長，全年監測溫室內有無美國列名檢疫有害生物之發生情形，確認無上述有害生物於溫室內危害植株，並測試主要蟲害之防治藥劑效果。以建立外銷蝴蝶蘭園重要蟲害防治曆及非疫生產點技術之研發。
1. Monitoring and controlling of Fusarium solani in greenhous of Phalaenopsis Previous investigations revealed that Fusarium solani is major pathogen to cause yellowing disease of Phalaenopsis in greenhous. Morevoer, the new control-agent of Fenton's reagent showed good efficacy oninhibiting spore germination of F. soalni and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 8 times dilution of Fenton's reagent. Comparing the treatment of the hexaconazole and Fenton's reagent, the results showed that the two chemicals could reduce the severity of yellowing leaf disease of Phalaenopsis in greenhouse, and the treated method indicated that irrigation was better than spraying. In addition, the water content of sphagnum mass is important factor to effect the survival of F. solani in greenhouse. In this project, the possible inoculum source will be examined in greenhous of Phalaenopsis. Furthermore, the Fenton's reagent or other materials will be used to treat the all possible places or materials related with yellowing disease of Phalaenopsis in greenhouse,and we hope the yellowing disease of Phalaenopsis will be reduced in future.
2. Controlling the plant parasitic nematodes in the roots of phalaenopsis Orchidacea are one of the most important exporting ornamental crops in our international commerce merchandises. In previous studies we found the plant parasitic nematode isolated form phalaenopsis orchids were mostly Aphelenchoides bicadatus. This genus could survive on plant tissue ordebris by dormancy or dehydration. In the planting materials or plant debrids under optimal moisture and temperature the Aphelenchoides nematodes would revive and infect the host again. The purpose of this project is to develope a S.O.P. for producing healthy orchids, The planting materials would be treated with hot-water bath , or combined with nematicides to eliminate any dormancy nematodes inside. If the plantlets were found to infected with Aphelenchoides spp., hot-water soaking would be applied to kill the nematodes before exporting. These procedure would ensure a high quality production of the orchid industry in Taiwan.
3. The monitor on the inoculums of soft rot bacteria in the exported Phalaenopsis cultivation region Phalaenopsis became the most important product in the industry of flowers for export, the cultivation quantity of orchid increased rapidly. Growing the orchid in the greenhouse caused the increasing of the temperature and humidity and this environment would cause the occurrence of plant diseases, which caused enormous losses of orchid growers. Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae (AAC), Burkholderia gladioli (BG) and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (PCH) caused infectious diseases ofPhalaenopsis in Taiwan. Soft-rotting bacteria had a wide host range in Orchids, such as Phalaenopsis, Oncidium and Dendrobium, etc. Phalaenopsis were more easily infected by soft-rotting bacteria, and this disease would be the limiting factor of Orchids cultivation. In order to fully understand the disease ecology in cultivation region, this study had three issues to investigate: (1) the pathogens sources of inoculums. (2) the resistance of the herbicide and copper. (3) the relationship of the environmental factor and soft-rotting disease. These results of study will apply on the disease management of soft-rotting diseases from Phalaenopsis to reduce the incidence of soft rot damage.
4. Surveillance and integrated pest management of quarantine pests on orchids for exportation This project focuses on the study of management of insect pests of moth orchids (Phalaenopsis spp.) all year around. Some quarantine pests including Frankliniella intonsa Trybom, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.),Planococcus minor (Maskell), Bradybaena similaris (Ferussac) on Phalaenopsis orchids listed by APHIS were surveyed and monitored. Development of the recommended measures and schedules and nonchemicalcontrol of pests were urgent requirement. The standard operation processes for pests control will be built up to produce pest-free orchids for exportation.
|Appears in Collections:||生命科學系所|
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