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標題: 不同有機質肥料及化學肥料的長期施用對土壤中磷和鉀有效性及磷鉀累積的影響(I)
The Availabilities and Accumulation of Phosphorus and Potassium in Soil Affeted by the Long-Term Application of Different Organic Fertilizers and Chemical Fertilizer (I)
作者: 陳仁炫
關鍵字: 農業化學類;基礎研究;Soil productivity;土壤生產力;有機質肥料磷有效性;鉀有效性;養分累積;Organic fertilizerPhosphorus availability;Potassium availability;Nutrient accumulation
增進土壤生產力,減少化學肥料和農藥的濫施為達成「永續性農業」的重要舉措。有機質肥料的施用及水旱輪作制度為改善本省土壤生產力的兩種有效策略,唯其改善效應會因有機質的種類以及作物的栽培制度而異。磷和鉀為植物生長所需的必要養分,其在土壤中的循環和收支,深深影響土壤中磷和鉀的有效性及磷和鉀肥的利用率。在施用有機質及實施水旱輪作以改善土壤生產力時,土壤中原本平衡的磷和鉀循環將因而改變,而影響磷和鉀在土壤中的行為 (包括磷和鉀的型態、數量、磷礦化和生物固定化的消長、磷和鉀的供應特性.等) 和磷和鉀之生物有效性。一般有機質的施用量概以氮的釋出率或作物對氮的需求來推估,因而往往造成土壤中磷和鉀的累積而降低土壤的品質,及增加對環境衝擊的可能性。本計劃即針對在長期以有機質的施用來改善土壤生產力的策略下及水田和旱田的輪替下對 (1)磷和鉀在土壤中的變遷, (2)土壤中不同種類磷和鉀型態的含量, (3)土壤磷和鉀供應能力,和 (4)土壤中磷和鉀累積的程度作一詳細的偵測及研究,以期瞭解以施用不同有機質及水稻-玉米輪作制度來改善土壤生產力時,對整體磷和鉀有效性及磷鉀累積的程度。

Increasing soil productivity as well as reducing excess addition of chemicalfertilizers and pecticides are two important practices to reach the goal of substainableagriculture. The application of organic matter and the system of crop rotation areeffective strategies to improve the productivities of soils in Taiwan. However, the effectsvaried with the kinds of organic matter and the systems of crop rotation. Phosphorus(P)and potassium (K) are two essential nutrients for plant growth, however, theirtransformations in soils will strongly affect the availabilities and fertilizer recoveries of Pand K in soils. The balanced p and K cycles, the forms of P and K, the relative change ofmineralization- immobilization of P, and the supply characteristics of P and K of soils allwill be changed by the use of organic matter and the corn-rice rotation system. In general,when organic fertilizers applied based on N release percentage and the N requirement ofthe crop, there will usually be an excess of P and K applied, therefore, P and Kaccumulation will occur and soil quality will be reduced. The purposes of this study are toinvestigate and monitor the changes in (1) P and K transformation; (2) the forms of P andK in soils; (3) the sorption capacities of P and K in soil; and (4) the accumulation of Pand K in soil, when different organic matters and rice-corn rotation are used to improvesoil productivity.
其他識別: NSC93-2313-B005-053
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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