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標題: 柑橘潰瘍病之安全用藥管理-微生物製劑之發展應用
Safe Use and Managment of Pesticides for Citrus Bacterial Canker-Develpment and Application of Microorganism Pesticides
作者: 黃姿碧, 曾德賜
關鍵字: 技術發展;Bacillus species;植物保護類;枯草桿菌;微生物生物製劑;柑橘潰瘍病;microorganism pesticides;citrus bacterial canker
Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri greatly affects citrus production in Taiwan and worldwide. It reduces quality and quantity of citrus fruit and results greatly in economic loss. In addition, this disease is regulated under quarantine or eradication program in several countries such as the northern, and the southeastern U.S. The bacterium spreads and disperses by wind-driven rain and penetrates through stomatal pores or wounds. After several severe typhoons and flooding particularly Typhoon Morakot occured in Taiwan, the disease severely emerged. It infects various citrus variaty inclusive of Golden seal orange, navel orange, Valencia orange and Murcott orange etc.. Notebaly, citrus bacterial canker has been reported on Pummelo such as Wen-Dan which is known as relatively resistant variety. The suggested pesticides include anitibiotics and copper compounds. While pesticide resistance to copper compounds has been repoted, thus eradication becomes the most effevive stretagy for the management of this disease. There is no known biocontol agents available. In this project, native microorganisms such as Bacillus species with antagaonistic activity against X. axonopodis pv. citri will be screened and assessed. The potential application of native microorganisms as biocontrol agents for citrus bacterial canker will be examined. Information gained from this study will provide strategies by using biocontrol agents in disease management of this disease. In addition, fungicides and insecticides comparible with microorganism pesticides will be evaluated to serve as the basis for the application of abiotic and biotic pesticides combination products. In the long term, problems of pesticide residue in fruits and pesticide resistance will be resolved.

由Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri所造成之柑橘潰瘍病為台灣及國際影響柑橘產業最具威脅之細菌性病害,不僅嚴重影響柑橘品質與產量,造成經濟上嚴重損失,亦是世界各國防檢疫單位所重視的病害,在美國及中南美國家均將之列為植物檢疫病害,並花費不貲極力剷除。台灣地屬颱風易侵襲地帶,今年又逢豪大雨不斷,尤以八八水災後,柑橘潰瘍病菌不僅可藉風雨遠距離傳播,也由風雨在柑橘所造成之傷口侵入感染,而導致柑橘潰瘍病在台灣各地區嚴重蔓延及發生,受感染之品種廣及檸檬、臍橙、晚崙西亞橙、茂谷柑等,甚至連原屬較抗病之柚類,如文旦,亦發現有潰瘍病。目前雖有推薦使用波爾多液、氧化亞銅、嘉賜銅等防治此病害,然報導指出已有抗藥性菌系出現,無法有效抑止此病害之蔓延及傳播,因而砍除及銷毀植株為目前不得已而採行之最有效之防治策略。本研究擬篩選對柑橘潰瘍病菌具拮抗能力之台灣本土枯草桿菌屬菌株,並評估其應用於柑橘潰瘍病防治之潛力,本研究所建立相關應用技術將可提供擬定應用微生物防治柑橘潰瘍病之依據。另針對常用殺蟲及殺菌劑篩選與生物製劑具親和性之藥劑,作為生物與非生物藥劑混合應用基礎,以降低農藥殘留與減少抗藥性問題產生。
其他識別: 99農科-9.2.2-檢-B2(13)
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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