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標題: 不同有機質肥料及化學肥料的長期施用對土壤中磷和鉀有效性及磷鉀累積的影響(III)
The Availabilities and Accumulation of Phosphorus and Potassium in Soil Affeted by the Long-Term Application of Different Organic Fertilizers and Chemical Fertilizer (III)
作者: 陳仁炫
關鍵字: 農業化學類;基礎研究;Soil productivity;土壤生產力;有機質肥料;磷有效性;鉀有效性;養分累積;Organic fertilizer;Phosphorus availability;Potassium availability;Nutrient accumulation.
增進土壤生產力,減少化學肥料和農藥的濫施為達成「永續性農業」的重要舉措。有機質肥料的施用及水旱輪作制度為改善本省土壤生產力的兩種有效策略,唯其改善效應會因有機質材的種類以及作物的栽培制度而異。磷和鉀為植物生長所需的必要養分,其在土壤中的循環和收支,深深影響土壤中磷和鉀的有效性及磷和鉀肥的利用率。在施用有機質及實施水旱輪作以改善土壤生產力時,土壤中原本平衡的磷和鉀循環將因而改變,而影響磷和鉀在土壤中的行為(包括磷和鉀的型態、數量、磷礦化和生物固定化的消長、磷和鉀的供應特性…等) 和磷和鉀之生物有效性。一般有機質肥料的施用量概以氮的釋出率或作物對氮的需求來推估,因而往往造成土壤中磷和鉀的累積而降低土壤的品質,及增加對環境衝擊的可能性。本計劃即針對在長期以有機質材的施用來改善土壤生產力的策略下及水田和旱田的輪替下對(1)磷和鉀行為在土壤中的變遷, (2)土壤中不同種類磷和鉀型態含量的變化, (3)土壤磷和鉀供應能力的變化,和(4)土壤中磷和鉀累積的程度作一詳細的偵測及研究,以期瞭解以施用不同種類有機質材及水稻-玉米輪作制度來改善土壤生產力時,對整體土壤中磷和鉀行為,及包括有效性,型態,移動性及累積的變化。

Improving soil productivity as well as reducing excess addition of chemicalfertilizers and pecticides are two important practices to reach the goal of substainableagriculture. The application of organic fertilizers and the system of crop rotation areeffective strategies to improve the productivities of soils in Taiwan. However, the effectsvaried with the kinds of organic materials and the systems of crop rotation. Phosphorus(P)and potassium (K) are two essential nutrients for plant growth, however, theirtransformations in soils will strongly affect the availabilities and fertilizer recoveries of Pand K fertilizer in soils. The balanced p and K cycles, the forms of P and K, the relativechange of mineralization- immobilization of P, and the supply characteristics of P and Kof soils all will be changed by the use of organic materials and the corn-rice rotationsystem. In general, when organic fertilizers applied based on N release percentage and theN requirement of the crop, there will usually be an excess of P and K applied, therefore, Pand K accumulation will occur and soil quality will be reduced and the risk ofenvironoment pollution will be increased. The purposes of this long-term study are toinvestigate and monitor the changes in (1) P and K transformation; (2) the forms of P andK in soil; (3) the sorption capacities of P and K in the soil; and (4) the accumulation of Pand K in the soil, when different organic materials and rice-corn rotation are used toimprove soil productivity in order to develop the whole information of the changes in Pand K behaviors as these two practices were used.
其他識別: NSC95-2313-B005-045
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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