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標題: 長期水旱田輪作土壤生態系不同施肥處理下根圈、根面及根內微生物之特性研究
Characterization of the Microorganisms Distributed in the Ecto-Rhizosphere, Rhizoplane and Entophytes in Paddy-Upland Crop Rotation of Soil Ecosystem
作者: 楊秋忠
關鍵字: 農業化學類;基礎研究;paddy-upland crop rotation, organic fertilizers, microbial community structure,genotypic characterization;水旱田輪作;有機質肥料;微生物群落結構;基因型研究
水旱田輪作是台灣農地耕作最常見的特色,此一特殊之栽培系統使台灣水稻與旱作農業生態系模式之研究及發展,在國際上具有其獨特性與不可取代性。為有效達到合理之田間土壤管理,須對農業生態系環境有充分之瞭解,而在水田及旱田輪作土壤中其生態相有相當程度的變化,值得深入探討。本研究將以玉米與水稻輪作系統研究長期施用不同有機質肥料之田間,進行根圈、根面及根內微生物之群落結構比較及特性分析,瞭解化學肥料及有機質肥料之施用對細菌多樣性之影響。本研究將以土壤中含有大量不可培養微生物之觀點,進行土壤基因型研究與傳統可培養法並行。萃取土壤中之微生物DNA,以PCR 技術研究具鑑別菌種之16S rRNA 基因與特殊功能性基因,如nifH與氮素固定有關之基因,應用分生技術研究微生物結構受到作物種類、不同肥培管理下所呈現的多樣性,並探討有機質綠肥、堆肥(豬糞堆肥)與泥炭之長期處理對農田土壤中微生物種類之影響。此外利用培養法分離篩選可培養部分之微生物族群,利用菌株分離培養後之功能性分析,探討細菌於作物根圈中可能表現之植物生長促進特性及細菌扮演之角色,並以基因型差異性進行環境中菌種之親緣關係分析與菌種鑑定,本土菌種之篩選亦有助於微生物肥料菌種之開發、應用及專利申請。期能對土壤環境中微生物所扮演的角色有更深入之瞭解。

The paddy-upland crop rotation farming in Taiwan is a distinguishing feature allover the world and contributes to the uniqueness and importance in the investigation ofthis agroecosystem. The reasonable managements of soil could be achieved by fullyunderstanding the agroecosystem environment, which showed varieties in soil ecologicalparameters to a large degree during these years. In the present study the amendment ofchemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the farming system were carried out to studythe dynamics of microbial community structure in the ecto-rhizosphere, rhizoplane andendorhizosphere. Microbial diversity was assessed by culturable and unculturable(nucleic acid based) approaches. Soil DNAs were isolated from soil samples andamplified with bacterial universal primers or functional gene (e.g. nifH) specific primersby PCR. The dynamics of microbial community will be monitored under variousfertilizers treatments in the rice and maize rhizosphere, and the impacts by the long termamendment of green manure, pig compost and peat will be studied. In the mean while theisolation and characterization of the rhizospheric bacteria will be performed to figure outthe interaction between plant and rhizobacteria. It is assumed that the present study willaid in the recognition of the role of bacteria present in the agroecosystem, thedevelopment of biofertilizers and application of relative patents.
其他識別: NSC96-2628-B005-006-MY3
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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