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Studies on Development and Application of Biofertilizers of Multi-P-Solubilizing Abilities
台灣長期大量施用肥料，普遍已累積大量的磷素，主要不易溶解的磷結合物，包括溶磷酸鈣(Ca-P)、溶磷酸鐵(Fe-p)、溶磷酸鋁(Al-P)、溶有機磷(Org-P)等，不能有效供應作物利用，有待開發多種溶磷能力菌之生物接種劑，以促進磷素多樣化的供應作物之磷的需求。過去研究溶磷菌主要是在各別溶磷之功能上之研發，如溶磷酸鈣及溶磷鐵，尚需加強多種溶磷能力之菌種研發，例如上述Ca-P, Fe-p, Al-P, Org-P及磷礦石溶磷等，本計畫為縮短龐大菌種之篩選工作，將組一群隊研發不同類型之菌種，包括細菌(含根瘤菌)、放線菌、真菌、分解有機磷菌，分別由中興大學土壤環境科學系楊秋忠教授、譚鎮中教授、施養信、蘇孝華助理及羅朝村副教授進行研發，另在菌劑生產配方由陳鴻基助理教授研究，以提高多元化應用土壤磷素之有效利用，將可提供不同作物(包括豆科、瓜果類、花卉及果樹葉)及土壤，以達到各種土壤及作物全方位性地減少化學磷肥之施用，以降低土壤劣化、環境污染與提高農產品質及農民所得之目的。
In Taiwan a large number of phosphates have accumulated in soil owing to the high amount of application of phosphate fertilizers over a long period of time. The main phosphate forms fixed in the soil were tricalcium phosphate (Ca-P), ferric phosphate (Fe-P) and aluminum phosphate (Al-P) which can not be absorbed by plant directly. The development of bioinoculants with phosphate solubilizing abilities increases the solubility of phosphate in the rhizosphere and provides an available form of phosphorus for plant growth. In the past researches were mainly focused on each hardly soluble form of phosphate such as tricalcium phosphate or ferric phosphate but, other phosphate form include aluminum phosphate, hydroxyapatite and organic phosphate still should be paid much attention. In the present project in order to carry out the huge amount of screening programmer of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms a specific group was set up. Different kinds of microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi which show phosphate solubilizing activities and organic phosphate solubilizers will be screened and characterized. This group consists of five researchers, professor Chiu-Chung Young, professor C.C. Tan, assistant professor Yang-Hsin Shih and assistant professor Shia-whwa Su being responsible for the exploit and research work, while the design of media composition of bioinoculants will be carried out by assistant professor H.J. Chen. The aim of this project is to improve the availability of different phosphate form in soil environment and decrease the overdose usages of chemical phosphate fertilizers. In a prospective view the quality of crop/product and the income of farmers will be improved, meanwhile we would able to maintain the soil productivity and reduce the pollution caused by unreasonable using of fertilizers.
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