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標題: 遙測技術在水稻精準施肥之應用
Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Precision Fertilization of Paddy Rice
作者: 申雍
關鍵字: 農業化學類;基礎研究;Remote Sensing;遙感探測;精準農業;水稻;氮肥;Precision Agriculture;Paddy Rice;NitrogenFertilizer
水稻是台灣地區栽培面積最廣的作物,而氮肥是提高和穩定水稻生產最重要的肥料,也是最不容易正確施用的肥料,農民多憑個人之經驗決定施肥的時間與用量,經常有超量施用的情形,增加因逕流、淋洗、以及脫氮等作用之損失。肥料超量使用,不僅導致氮肥利用率降低並浪費肥料,且會產生惡化局地環境生態的非點源污染,所造成的不良衝擊影響甚至可及於全球的層次。如能精確掌握局地微氣候和土壤之空間的變異,以及其對農作物生育和營養狀態的影響,採行精準的肥培管理手段,將可提高氮肥利用率,減少因施肥不當所產生之非點源污染。本研究擬利用已開發之可偵測水稻植體氮營養狀態和產量的遙測技術為基礎,結合傳統之土壤調查與理化特性分析技術,開發可以快速鑑識及區分田間之土壤限制因子及其空間分佈狀況的技術,並以位於台中縣外埔鄉大甲溪畔約200 公頃的水稻田為試驗樣區。研究期程為期二年,第一年預期將可規劃出符合精準農耕意涵的田間管理組圖,第二年將進行精準肥培管理的先驅研究試驗,以驗證第一年的規劃結果。

Rice is the major food crop grown in Taiwan. Nitrogen is the most importantfertilizer to increase and stabilize yield of paddy rice. However, farmers tends toover apply N fertilizer because it is very difficult to identify nitrogen status of riceplants by visual inspection. The over applied nitrogen fertilizers not only decreasethe nitrogen use efficiency and thus increase the management costs, but also posethreats to environment. The non-point pollution due to excess reactive nitrogen,when losses through leaching, runoff, and denitrification processes, may producedetrimental effects on public health and ecosystems. Excess N deposition in theatmosphere considered recognition as a potent contributor to global warming andstratospheric ozone depletion. These non-point pollutions can be reduced throughprecision fertilization management by knowing the spatial variation of growth andnutrition status of crops as affected by the changes of soil properties within fieldand microclimate. This is a 2-year research project. In this study, new techniquesenabling rapid identification and delineation of limiting soil factors will bedeveloped by using those already developed remote sensing techniques forestimating nitrogen status and yield of paddy rice in conjunction with traditionalsoil analysis and survey techniques. A 200ha paddy field near Tachai River will beused to as a test site. During the first year, a field management map for the test site,in accordance with concepts of precision agriculture, will be delineated. In thesecond year, precision fertilizer management experiments will be conducted tovalidate the field management map planed in the first year.
其他識別: NSC97-2313-B005-023-MY2
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

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