Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5368
標題: 大豆田表面能量組成與地表特徵之研究
Surface energy components and land characteristics of a soybean paddy
作者: 郭育琪
Kuo, Yu-Chi
關鍵字: eddy covariance system;渦流協變性系統;albedo;Bowen Ratio;canopy resistance;surface roughness length for momentum (z0m);CO2 flux;反照率;Bowen Ratio;蒸散阻抗;地表動量粗糙度;二氧化碳通量
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: Álvaro M. R. Almeida1, Lilian Amorim2, Armando Bergamin Filho2, Eleno Torres1, José R. B. Farias1,Luís C. Benato1, Mauro C. Pinto1 & Nilson Valentim1, “Progress of Soybean Charcoal Rot under Tillage and No-tillage Systems in Brazil, ” Embrapa Soja, Cx. Postal 231, 86001-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil, CEP 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. (Accepted for publication on 25/06/2002) Aubinet, M., A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, Ü. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, Ch. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Grünwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini, and T. Vesala, “Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests:the EUROFLUX methodology,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 30, pp. 114-175 (2000). Baldocchi, D., E. Falge, L. Gu, R. Olson, D. Hollinger, S. Running, P. Anthoni, Ch. Bernhofer, K. Davis, R. Evans, J. Fuentes, A. Goldstein, G. Katul, B. Law, X. Lee, Y. Malhi, T. Meyers, W. Munger, W. Oechel, K.T. Paw U, K. Pilegaard, H.P. Schmid, R. Valentini, S. Verma, T. Vesala, K. Wilson, and S. Wofsyn, ”FLUXNET:a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 82, pp. 2415-2434 (2001). Brut A., D. Legain, P. Durand, P. Laville, “A Relaxed Eddy Accumulator for Surface Flux Measurements on Ground-Based Platforms and Aboard Research Vessels,” American Meteorological Society, (1998) Bowen, I.S., “The ratio of heat losses by conduction and by evaporation from any water surface:Physical Review,” vol. 27, pp. 779-787 (1926). Beverland, I.J., D.H. Oneill, S.L. Scott, and J.B. Moncrieff, ”Design, construction and operation of flux measurement system using the conditional sampling technique,“ Atmospheric Environment, vol. 30, pp. 3209-3220 (1996). Bowling, D.R., A.A. Turnipseed, A.C. Delany, D.D., Baldocchi, J.P. Greenberg, and R.K. Monson, ”The use of relaxed eddy accumulation to measure biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene and other biological trace gases,” Oecologia, vol. 116, pp. 306-315 (1998). Brotzge, J.A., and K.C. Crawford, “Examination of the Surface Energy Budget:A Comparison of Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 4, pp. 160-178 (2003) Cheng-I Hsieh, Ger Kiely, Adrian Birkby, Gabriel Katul, “Photosynthetic responses of a humid grassland ecosystem to future climate perturbations, ” Received 1 June 2004; received in revised form 20 January 2005; accepted 6 February 2005 Available online 10 May 2005 Campell GS, Norman JM. An introduction to environmental biophysics. New York: Springer-Verlag; (1998) Gao-Zhiqiu, Lingen-Bian, and Xiuji-Zhou, “Measurements of turbulent transfer in the near-surface layer over a rice paddy in China,” Geophysical Research, vol. 108, No.D13,4387(2003) Grelle, A., and A. Lindroth, “Eddy-correlation system for long-term monitoring of fluxes of heat, water vapor and CO2,” Global Change Biol., vol. 2, pp. 297-307 (1996). Jeng-Lin Tsai, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Po-Sheng Lu, Ming-Hwi Yao, Yuan Shen, “Surface energy components and land characteristics of a rice paddy,” National Chung-Hsing University, 250 KuokangRoad, Taichung 402, Taiwan, (2006). Jeng-Lin Tsai, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Po-Sheng Lu, Ken-Hui Chang, “Comparison of the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer over a rice paddy as observed by a tethersonde system and by an eddy covariance system, ” National Chung-Hsing University, 250 KuokangRoad, Taichung 402, Taiwan, (2006). Jeng-Lin Tsai, Ben-Jei Tsuang, “Aerodynamic roughness over an urban area and over two farmlands in a populated area as determined by wind profiles and surface energy flux measurements,” Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 KuokangRoad, Taichung 402, Taiwan, Received 18 May 2004; received in revised form 13 July 2005; accepted 15 July 2005 Jing Wang, Qiang Yu, Jun Li, Long-Hui Li, Xiang-Ge Li, Gui-Rui Yu, Xiao-Min Sun, “Simulation of diurnal variations of CO2, water and heat fluxes over winter wheat with a model coupled photosynthesis and transpiration, ” Received 29 December 2003; received in revised form 24 May 2005; accepted 28 February 2006 Kaimal, J.C., and J.E. Gaynor, “Another Look at Sonic Thermometry,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., vol. 56, pp. 401-410 (1991). McMillen, R.T., “An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 43, pp. 231-245 (1988). Meek, D.W., and J.H. Prueger, “Solutions for three regression problems commonly found in meteorological data analysis,” American Meteorological Society, pp. 141-145 (1998). Msssman, W.J., and X. Lee, “Eddy covariance flux correction and uncertainties in long-term stydies of carbon and energy exchanges,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 113, pp. 121-144 (2002). Novick KA, Stoy PC, Katul GG, Ellsworth DS, Siquira MBS, Juang J, et al. Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in a warm temperature grassland. Oecologia ;138:259–74. (2004) Ricardo K. Sakai, David R. Fitzjarrald, Osvaldo L. L. Moraes, Matt Czikowsky, Otávio C. Acevedo, Rodrigo da Silva, Troy Beldini, “Monitoring Carbon, Heat, and Water Vapor turbulent fluxes over an Agricultural Field in Western Amazon, ” (2006). Tsai J-L, B-J Tsuang, “Aerodynamic roughness over an urban area and over two farmlands in a populated area as determined by wind profiles and surface energy flux measurements,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 132, pp. 154-170 (2005). Tsuang, B-J, J-L Tsai, M-D Lin, and C-L Chen, “Determining aerodynamic roughness using tethersonde and heat flux measurements in an urban area over a complex terrain,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, pp. 1993-2003 (2003). Webb, E.K., G.I. Pearman, and R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapor transfer,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., vol. 106, pp. 67-90 (1980). Wilczak, J.M., S.P. Oncley, and S.A. Stage, “Sonic anemometer tilt correction algorithms,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 99, pp. 127-150 (2001) Wilson, K.B., A. Goldstein, E. Falge, M. Aubinet, D. Baldocchi, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, R. Ceulemans, H. Dolman, C. Field, A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, B.E. Law, A. Kowalski, T. Meyers, J. Moncrieff, R. Monson, W. Oechel, J. Tenhunen, R. Valentini, and S. Verma, “Energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat flux during the warm season at FLUXNET sites,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 113, pp. 223-243 (2002). Zhang, S., C. Qiu, and W. Zhang, “Estimating heat fluxes by merging profile formulae and the energy budget with a variational technique,” Advances in Atmospheric Science, vol. 21, pp. 627-636 (2004). 余思穎,「利用渦流協變性系統量測都會區紊流熱通量之研究」,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中 (2006)。 謝祥雲,「利用陀螺儀於非靜止平台上校正通量之方法」,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中 (2006)。 朱佳仁,「環境流體力學」,國立中央大學土木工程學系,桃園 (2003)。
摘要: 
許多氣象與空品模式的計算都需用到土地特性等資料做為輸入值,因此本研究目的為利用渦流協變性系統觀測台灣大豆田(soybean)之表面能量組成與土地特性,來找出可以適用於一些氣象與空氣品質模式的大豆田土地特性。本實驗場址位於台中縣霧峰鄉農業試驗所(24°01´N;120°41´E),EC系統的觀測高度為3.5公尺,為時近一個月實驗 ( 2005/12/27 ~ 2006/01/17 ) 之連續監測,量測蒸發潛熱與可感熱之紊流熱通量,其實驗期間白天之LE平均值約為81Wm-2,H平均值約為52 Wm-2。
有關大豆田土地特性方面,實驗期間白天平均反照率約為0.09,標準偏差為0.03;在白天期間Bowen Ratio的平均值是0.72,標準偏差為0.12;氣動阻抗以及蒸散阻抗兩種阻抗的白天平均值圖形皆成U型,氣動阻抗白天平均值為63 sm-1,而蒸散阻抗白天平均值為189 s m-1;另外在這次實驗期間所得到d0值為0.75 m以及z0m值為0.016 m,而此時所得到的E為1.33( 當u*>0.1 ms-1、(ws)>0.5 ms-1 )。
在CO2通量方面,有明顯日夜週期變化;夜晚因植物行呼吸作用放出CO2,中午則因植物光合作用,通量為向下或呈現較低值,推測CO2通量受到植物的影響極為明顯,而在CO2濃度方面,白天期間的CO2濃度幾乎都是低於平均值405 ppm,並沒有出現因為人類活動上下班之尖峰時間造成的相關性。

Many meteorological and air quality models require land characteristics as inputs. The purposes of this study was to measure surface energy components and land characteristics of a soybean paddy in Taiwan using eddy covariance system, and to determine the characteristics of soybean paddies which can be used for meteorological and air quality models.
The study site is located at the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) (24°01'N, 120°41'E) in the Taichung Basin in central Taiwan. Eddy covariance system were mounted on a mast at a height of 3.5 m above ground level, and flux measurements were carried out from 27 DEC 2005 to 17 JAN 2006. It was found the mean value of latent heat fluxes closed to 74 Wm-2, and the mean value of sensible heat fluxes close to 58 Wm-2 during the study daytime period.
The mean value of albedo during the study daytime period was 0.09 with a standard deviation of 0.03;the mean value of Bowen Ratio during the daytime period was 0.72 with a standard deviation of 0.12. The diurnal patterns of the aerodynamic resistance and canopy resistance of the soybean paddy were both found to be U shaped. The mean value of ra during the daytime period was 63 sm-1,and rc was 189 s m-1. In addition, the d0 during the study period was 0.75m, and the z0m was 0.016m, which has the minimum E=1.33. (where u*>0.1 ms-1,ws>0.5 ms-1).
During the study period, the flux of CO2 was alternated day and night. The plants discharged CO2 at night when they were respiring, and the flux of CO2 was lower at noon when the plants were photosynthesizing. Therefore, it is suggested that the CO2 flux was varied by the plants. In addition, the concentration of CO2 during the daytime was lower than the mean value (405 ppm). There was not a correlation between the concentration of CO2 and the activities of human daily livings.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5368
其他識別: U0005-3107200711430200
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.