Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 南海海域二氧化碳及能量通量觀測之研究
Observation of CO2 and energy fluxes at South China Sea
作者: 吳庭宇
Wu, Ti-Yu
關鍵字: marine environment;海洋環境;Eddy Covariance system;CO2 fluxes;ship motion correction;WPL correction;渦流協變性系統;海洋校正公式;二氧化碳通量;WPL項校正
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: Aubinet, M.A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, Ü. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, Ch. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Grünwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini, and T. Vesala., 2000: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests:the EUROFLUX methodology. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 114-175. Baldocchi, D., E. Falge, L. Gu, R. Olson, D. Hollinger, S. Running, P. Anthoni, Ch. Bernhofer, K. Davis, R. Evans, J. Fuentes, A. Goldstein, G. Katul, B. Law, X. Lee, Y. Malhi, T. Meyers, W. Munger, W. Oechel, K.T. Paw U, K. Pilegaard, H.P. Schmid, R. Valentini, S. Verma, T. Vesala, K. Wilson, and S. Wofsyn., 2001: FLUXNET:a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82, 2415-2434. Bian Lingen, Gao Zhiqiu, LuLonghua, Zhang Yabin, C.Roger, and X.D.Zhang., 2003: Observational estimation of heat budgets on drifting ice and open water over the Arctic Ocean. Science In China, 46, 580-591. Brut, A., D. Legain, P. Durand, and P. Laville., 1998: A Relaxed Eddy Accumulator for Surface Flux Measurements on Ground-Based Platforms and Aboard Research Vessels. American Meteorological Society, 21, 411-427. Brutsaert, W.H., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere. D. Reidel Publish Company, Holland. E.W. Schulz, B.G. Sanderson, and E.F. Bradley, 2005: Motion correction for shipborne turbulence sensors. American Meteorological Society, 22, 55-69. Fairall C. W. and A.B.White., 1996: Integrated Shipboard Measurements of the Marine Boundary Layer. Journal of Atomspheric and Oceanic Technology. 14, 338-359. Francois Anctil, Mark A. Donelan, William M. Drennan, and Hans C. Graber, 1994: Eddy-correlation measurements of air-sea fluxes from a discus buoy. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 11, 1144-1150. Fujitani T., 1981: Direct measurements of turbulent fluxes over the sea during AMTEX. Meteorology and Geophysics, 32, 119-134. Fujitani T., 1985: Method of turbulent flux measurement on a ship by using a stable platform system. Meteorology and Geophysics, 36, 157-170. Fumiyoshi Kondo, and Osamu Tsukamoto, 2007: Air-sea CO2 flux by eddy covariance technique in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Journal of Oceanography, 63, 449-456. Gao Zhiqiu, Bian Lingen, and Xiuji Zhou, 2003: Measurements of turbulent transfer in the near-surface layer over a rice paddy in China. Geophysical Research, 108, NO. D13, 4387, doi:10.1029/2002JD002779. Gerd Wendler, Brian Hartmann, Chris Wyatt, Martha Shulski, and Henry Stone, 2005: Midsummer Energy Balance for the Southern Seas. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 117, 131-148. G.G. Burba, S.B.Verma, and J. Kim, 1998: Energy Fluxes of an open water area in a mid-latitude prairie wetland. Boundary_Layer Meeorology, 91, 495-504. J.B. Edson, A.A. Hinton, K.E. Prada, J.E. Hare, and C.W. Fairall, 1998: Direct Covariance Flux from Mobile Platform at Sea. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15, 547-562. Kaimal, J.C., and J.E. Gaynor, 1991: Another Look at Sonic Thermometry. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 56, 401-410. Lee Hyun-Chul, and Yoon Jong-Hwan, 1999: Surface Heat Flux in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 401-417. Lee, X., 1998: On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 91, 39-49. Li-7500 CO2/H2O Analyzer Introduction Manual., 2004: Environmental Version. Li-COR Inc. McGillis W. R., and Edson J. B.. 2001: Direct covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes. Journall of Geophysical Research, 106, 729-745. McGillis W. R., and Edson J. B., 2004: Air-sea CO2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific. Journall of Geophysical Research, 109, C08S02,doi:10.1029/2003JC002256. McMillen, R.T., 1988: An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 43, 231-245. Meek, D.W., and J.H. Prueger, 1998: Solutions for three regression problems commonly found in meteorological data analysis. American Meteorological Society, 141-145. Msssman, W.J., and X. Lee., 2002: Eddy covariance flux correction and uncertainties in long-term stydies of carbon and energy exchanges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 121-144. Sachiho Sugimoto, Futoshi Nakamura, and Akiko Ito, 1997: Heat Budget and Statistical Analysis of the relationship between Stream Temperature and Riparian Forest in the Toikanbetsu River Basin, Northern Japan. J. For. Res, 2, 103-107 Tsai J-L, B-J Tsuang., 2005: Aerodynamic roughness over an urban area and over two farmlands in a populated area as determined by wind profiles and surface energy flux measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 132, 154-170. Tsuang, B-J, J-L Tsai, M-D Lin, and C-L Chen., 2003: Determining aerodynamic roughness using tethersonde and heat flux measurements in an urban area over a complex terrain. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 1993-2003. Wayne R. Rouse, Devon Worth, and Claire Oswald., 2003: Energy Budget Processes of a Smalll Northern Lake. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4, 694-701 Webb, E.K., G.I. Pearman, and R. Leuning., 1980: Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapor transfer, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 106, 67-90. Wilczak, J.M., S.P. Oncley, and S.A. Stage., 2001: Sonic anemometer tilt correction algorithms. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99, 127-150 Wilson, K.B., A. Goldstein, E. Falge, M. Aubinet, D. Baldocchi, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, R. Ceulemans, H. Dolman, C. Field, A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, B.E. Law, A. Kowalski, T. Meyers, J. Moncrieff, R. Monson, W. Oechel, J. Tenhunen, R. Valentini, and S. Verma, 2002: Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 223-243. Zhang, S., C. Qiu, and W. Zhang., 2004: Estimating heat fluxes by merging profile formulae and the energy budget with a variational technique. Advances in Atmospheric Science, 21, 627-636. 謝祥雲,2006:「利用陀螺儀於非靜止平台上校正通量之方法」,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。 陳元隆,2007:「渦流協變性系統應用在海洋環境觀測之困難度探討與解決方法」,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。
本研究中共分析三個海洋上的通量及微氣象觀測實驗,分別在2006年5月於台灣海峽、2006年7月及2007年7月於南海進行。為校正風場的誤差,根據陀螺儀所記錄之偏向角,利用Fujitani (1981)所推導之海洋校正公式進行修正,再進行WPL項(Webb et al., 1980)校正以修正水氣及熱通量之影響,最後計算出正確之二氧化碳通量以及其他能量通量。經過陀螺儀校正後發現二氧化碳通量大多為大氣向海面傳輸,又以中午時最為旺盛;但經過WPL校正後,卻變成相反之趨勢。而在蒸發潛熱通量以及可感熱通量部分,各項校正前後都是由海洋向上傳輸,且最大值在中午發生。此外,根據太陽輻射的測量,中午海面反照率約為0.04~0.08,可更了解海洋環境之參數。

While using Eddy Covariance system to observe air-sea flux in the marine environment, there are many problems that must be considered. On the research ship, the problems that should be considered first are errors of wind velocity resulted from shaking, rotation and movement. In addition, it will reduce usability and accuracy of data when the open path analyzer is covered with water drops and salt.
In this research, three flux experiments were carried out at Taiwan Straits in May 2006, and at South China Sea in July 2006 and 2007. In order to correct the error of the wind field, Fujitani (1981) suggested that true wind velocity should be corrected by ship motion correction according to the angle of deflection. Then the CO2 fluxes should be corrected by the latent heat fluxes and the sensible fluxes (WPL correction) (Webb et al., 1980). After ship motion correction and WPL correction, we can calculate the true fluxes.
The CO2 fluxes including ship motion correction showed a sink from the air to the ocean, especially at noon. But the total CO2 fluxes including WPL correction showed a source from the ocean to the air. Other fluxes, the latent heat fluxes and the sensible fluxes, showed a source from the ocean to the air, and the maximums appeared at noon. In addition, according to the measurement of solar radiation, the albedo of sea was 0.04 - 0.08, it can let us understand the parameter of the marine environment even more.
其他識別: U0005-0608200810042600
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.