Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54064
標題: 監督過失罪責理論與其運用
Criminal Liability for Supervisory Negligence-Theory and Its Application
作者: 蔡蕙芳
關鍵字: 法律學;基礎研究
摘要: 
研究計畫題目:監督過失罪責理論與其運用本研究計畫的主題是業務過失中之監督過失問題,嘗試討論對那些在受僱人或低階人員執行業務中之故意或過失刑事不法行為未盡監督上必要之注意義務之僱主或高階管理人員論處監督過失罪責之可能性。在涉及員工或公司、企業等組織體內之低階員工之故意或過失刑事不法行為的案例中,通常,僱主或高階管理人員會持以下的說詞:「我不知道這些事」或者「那不是我做的」。這種說法或許無法使僱主、高階管理人員免於承擔民事侵權責任,但卻可以有效的作為不負刑事責任的辯詞。主要原因在於,在現行刑法體系中,除非證明僱主或高階管理人員對其受僱人或低階員工之直接造成法益侵害結果的故意或過失刑事不法行為具有故意,而得以追究共同正犯或教唆犯、幫助犯等參與犯之責任,否則難以追究僱主或高階管理人員之刑事責任。受僱人執行業務受到僱主指揮與監督。公司、企業等組織體亦以分層負責與分工為運作之基礎,低階員工之業務上行為必須受到高階管理人員之監督與管理。縱然僱主或高階管理人員者難以預見其受僱人或低階員工會從事何種行為,但對其受僱人或低階員工在業務範圍內之行為卻能有效監督。因此,要求僱主或高階管理人員對其受僱人或低階員工之業務上行為課以監督上必要之注意義務,對犯罪之預防有其重要性。監督過失所要探討的問題是,對受僱人或低階員工未盡監督上必要注意義務之僱主或高階管理人員是否可能因此而承擔過失罪責。舉例而言,卡車司機駕駛汽車未盡交通上注意義務致他人受重傷,車行老闆是否可能因為未盡監督上必要之注意義務,而被論以業務過失致重傷罪?醫生執行醫療業務發生業務過失致病患死亡時,醫院之院長或其他高階管理人員是否可能因為未盡監督上必要之注意義務亦被論以業務過失致死罪?本研究計畫首先從組織體運作的特色與內部監督關係討論監督過失與犯罪預防之關係。接下來討論監督過失罪責理論上之各問題,例如,監督上必要之注意義務、違反監督上必要之注意義務行為與法益受侵害結果間之因果關係與客觀歸責、信賴原則等。最後則是將此理論運用於現行刑法中關於保護生命與身體法益之過失犯罪與刑法第130 條廢弛職務釀成災害罪。此外,本文的討論範圍亦將延伸至環境刑法中關於法人處罰之兩罰規定。

Criminal Liability for Supervisory Negligence: Theory and Its ApplicationThis project aims to develop the criminal supervisory liability based on negligencetheory to recognize the employer'sor the high-level manager's direct liability for thefailure to exercise the duty of proper and sufficient care to supervise the conduct of theemployees or the low-level agents.When the death or bodily injury directly caused by the employees or the low-levelagents, the employers or the high-level managerial agents within the organizationalways hold assertions like, “I didn't know,” or “It wasn't me,”theses defenses are thepowerful shields for co-perpetration or complicity liability due to the difficulty ofproving the requirement of knowledge and intention, although they will not excuse tortliability. From the point of deterrence, the employers or the high managerial agentshave supervisory authority and can best detect, control, and prevent the employees' orlow-level agents' criminal conduct. Consequently, it is proper to impose theemployers or the high managerial agents the duty to supervise criminal unlawful actscommitted in the course of his employment.Part I of this Project will address the deterrent function of supervisory negligentliability. Part II will review the requirements in determining whether supervisorynegligent liability should be imposed. Part III will discuss the application ofsupervisory negligent liability to several criminal law areas, including the offenses ofnegligent killing and bodily injury, the offense of neglecting official duty causing acatastrophe, and the environmental crimes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54064
其他識別: NSC98-2410-H005-034
Appears in Collections:法律學系

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