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標題: 數位時代之兒少保護-歐盟及美國法制與實踐之研究
Child Protection in the Digital Era- Law and Practice in the European Union and the United States
作者: 高玉泉
關鍵字: 法律學;基礎研究;digital era;數位時代;數位匯流;兒少保護;兒童權利公約;市民社會;違法及有害資訊;言論自由;digital convergence;child protection;United Nations Convention onthe Rights of the Child;civil society;illegal and harmful materials;freedom ofspeech
2009 年11 月的「動新聞」事件充分暴露出數位時代違法及有害資訊對兒童少年可能造成的傷害。數位時代最大的特色在於資訊的散佈、蒐集。取得及整理的速度快速,及其內容的龐大多元。這使得政府對於內容的管理顯得捉襟見肘。數位匯流後,各種資訊更透過通訊及電信系統,在法律的灰色地帶中任由兒童接收,嚴重影響兒童之身心發展。從兒童保護的層面觀察,1989 年聯合國兒童權利公約第17 條規定國家應保護兒童不受可能損害其福祉的信息和資料之害,及第34 條國家應保護兒童免遭一切形式的色情剝削和性侵害。此二條文為公約關於兒童與資訊的接收及製造之規範原則。很明顯地,公約瞭解到資訊內容對於兒童健康成長的重要性。不幸地的是,利潤導向的傳播者往往濫用憲法上的言論自由及新聞自由,散布對兒童有害的資訊。凡此,加上戀童癖者利用網路散佈兒童色情圖片,交換嫖童妓資訊及進行網路誘拐等,使兒童深陷重重危機。有鑑於此,歐盟及美國官方及市民社會(civil society)透過立法及種種技術上的措施,進行反制,已有相當建樹,頗值我國參考。本計畫擬就過去十年來歐美所形成之規範及技術措施進行分析評價,並探討其是否可作為我國之借鏡。

On 24 Nov., 2009, a local press, Apple Daily, started a news program on the internet byusing virtual images to imitate recent violent and sexual offence cases. Several civil groupscomplained that the materials were offensive and should be prohibited. The government,obviously under immense pressure, sanctioned the media only after two weeks. The wholeprocess reflected the limitations of the government in the regulation and management of thedigital world. Indeed, the ubiquitous, transnational, and decentralised natures of the internethave made illegal and harmful materials (such as child pornography, child grooming, extremeviolence, and racial hatred etc) easily accessible to everyone, especially children.Undoubtedly, children are at risks when facing those information. The protection of childrenfrom those offensive materials in this digital era has thus become one of the most importantissues since the passage of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child(UNCRC) in 1989. Article 17 of the UNCRC states that States should develop guidelines forthe protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being.While the legal basis can be ascertained, it remains to be seen how states develop effectivemeans to curb this epidemic on the internet. This research proposal plans to study the recentregulatory and societal developments in the European Union and the United States regardingthe exclusion of offensive materials on and via the internet. Significant legislations (such asthe Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act of the United Kingdom) and institutions (VirtualGlobal Task Force of the United States, for instance) will be examined. Efforts of the civilsociety (such as the European Financial Coalition, and child mobile phone) will also beintroduced.
其他識別: NSC99-2410-H005-040
Appears in Collections:法律學系

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