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Surveillance and Manipulation Techniques on Plant Quarantine Pests (II)
本計畫之目的在監測植物檢疫病蟲害同時發展植物檢疫病蟲害之管理技術.本計畫分五個子題,總預算共計約435萬元,研究子題及步驟如下: (一) 主要植物檢疫害蟲網路資訊系統;目標為重要檢疫害蟲網際網路資訊系統設計與蒐集資訊.由Internet與郵件蒐集國外資訊.初步資訊蒐集工作完成後,即著手系統設計,以FrontPage2000以及VisualBASIC為設計工具,將資訊分類,分別製作網頁.於初步系統設計之時,並繼續資訊之蒐集之新資訊.系統經測試後,即開放供各界試用. (二) RAPD-PCR應用於鱗翅目檢疫害蟲鑑定之研究;本計畫的主要目的即在於應用目前已被泛運用於許多動植物種類鑑定上的分子生物學方法,稱之為逢機放大多態型DNA技術,尋求並建立快速與準確鑑定重要鱗翅目檢疫害蟲的方法與技術,並藉以建立國內鑑定此類害蟲的相關資料庫,做為日後比受檢疫蟲種的依據,同時亦期能提供我國動植檢疫單位便捷的害蟲檢疫方法. (三) 介殼蟲之鑑定及檢疫處理;本研究計畫之目的在調查和鑑定台灣介殼蟲之種類之生活史、寄主植物範圍、地理分佈及經濟重要性.介殼蟲是果樹、觀賞花木及溫室植物之重要害蟲.介殼蟲之危害及增加防治成本,每年約損失50億美元.台灣介殼蟲己有記錄之種類共有12科,101屬,314種.本研究之結果將可提供相關資訊,使檢疫工作者能認識和鑑識介殼蟲本. (四) 進口蔬菜種子及栽培資材病原檢疫偵測技術及快速鑑定方法之建立與應用;本年計畫實行方向分為幾點: 1. 進口蔬菜種子及介質種傳病原種類探討,進一步了瞭解這些農作物可能帶菌情形.同時進行進口種子、栽培介質帶菌率,帶菌相調查、鑑定與保存及新菌系的監控. 2. 傳統檢測與病害種類及發生關聯探討. 3. 核酸探針之應用,針對十字花科種子及介質進行檢測,首先以不同品種及輸入國的種子為供試材料,來評估探針的靈敏度及操作流程的確立.PCR偵測技術及流程之建立及引子選試與靈敏度試驗及種子及栽培介質帶菌之實體偵測. 4. 快速鑑定法之研發.期能應用於進口蔬菜種子及介質種傳病原種類之檢測. (五) 植物病原線蟲偵測及鑑定技術之研發.植物病原線蟲檢疫係針對主出口農產品之檢疫及品管線蟲種類,以柏門氏漏斗法、浸泡法及染色法等技術分離及鑑定土壤、各種栽培介質、種子、苗木、球根、球莖、塊莖、塊根及根莖等繁殖體中之植物寄生性線蟲.
The objective of this research project is pest surveillance of quarantine and development of new techniques for quarantine pest management. This surveillance project is containing five programs. The total budgets are estimated about 4350 thousands. The research procedures are as the following: (1). The purpose of this project is the system design and information collection for the internet information system of the major quarantine pests. Information ill be collected from internet resources and via regular mail. As the preliminary information is collected? the system design will be started. FrontPage 2000 and Visual BASIC will be the major programming tools. The information will be classified and assigned to appropriate web page. During the programming stage? the information collection will be continued. As the system will be tested on line and new information will be constantly incorporated. After the system is thoroughly tested? it will open to the public for review and test; (2). The goal of this research is to apply a rapid method? namely random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction? RAPD-PCRN to identify a native major lepidopteran pest? Spodoptera litura? and investigating their diversity of different population in Taiwan. By the end of the research? we expect to set up a suitable method for identification of lepidopteran pests? and then expend this method to set up a data bank on genomic diversities for different lepidotperan pests in Taiwan for quarantine purpose; (3) The objective of this project is to survey and identify of the scale insects and provide information on the life cycle? host-plant? range? geographical distribution and economic importance for each know species in Taiwan. Scale insects are important insect pests of fruit? woody ornamentals to scale insects are estimated to reach $ 5 billion annually. Scale insects of Taiwan had been studied and 12 families? 101 genera and 314 species were recorded. The results of this project will provide information to enable quarantine workers to recognize and to identify scale insects; (4) There are several items to practice of this project in this year. It contained: 1. to research fungi flora from various imports vegetable seeds and media; 2. to explore relationship between classical assay and various pathogens; 3. apply established detection with probe; 4. to develop rapid identification method and combined the selective media for the accurate detection of pathogens associated with the seeds and media.; (5) It is necessary to adopt adequate quarantine measures to prevent other high economical important nematodes brought into our lands by the importune of plant materials from foreign countries. Numerous procedures are used to detect nematodes which infect living plant parts such as roots? stems? twigs? corms? bulbs? rhizomes? tuberous roots? leaves and seeds. Methods used for detection of nematodes include baermann's trays/funnels? centrifugal? elutriation? sieving? incubation? enzymatic technique and staining.
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