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標題: 台灣地區蚜蟲基因條碼及系統發生之建立
Establishment of Dna Barcoding and Phylogeny of Aphids in Taiwan
作者: 郭美華
關鍵字: 生物技術, 植物保護類;商品化;DNA barcode;基因條碼;COI/COII 粒線體基因;EF1-α 核基因;mitochondrial DNA COI/COII;EF1-α nuclear gene
As Taiwan imports large quantities of agriculture products to fulfill its obligationas a member of WTO, it faces an ever-increasing risk of being invaded by foreign pests.A reliable and efficient quarantine system is required for this high possible crisis. Pastresearches indicated that aphids are a species of rapid diversification. Variations ofenvironments, such as uniform planting and global warming, may have a significanteffect on the speciation and evolution of aphids. Thus, a reliable working phylogenetictree becomes especially important to resolve the controversial biological issues andguide pest management from an evolutionary viewpoint and further assist quarantine.The 319 described aphid species in Taiwan belong to three families: Adelgidae,Phylloxeridae and Aphididae, which comprise the superfamily Aphidoidea. Because ofthe biodiversity and wide range of taxonomy category, Aphididae, consisting of 9/11 ofthe subfamily (sensu Blackman and Eastop, 1994) in Taiwan, is a good candidate formodel taxa to precede phylogenetic analysis and demonstrate the evolutionaryrelationship of different category levels. The complication of polymorphic life cycleresults in controversial issue on traditional taxonomy. The contentions of DNAtaxonomy drive the advance of molecular phylogeny. Hence we propose a three-yearproject which expects to establish a dependable DNA barcode of aphids in Taiwan. Thephylogeny and coevolution will base on highly conserved genes of aphids and Buchneraaphidicola 16S rDNA. The first year aims at establishing an integrated databaseincluding, species information, GPS coordinates and available molecular characteristics.Further we will take up Adelgidae phylogeny, and compare its phylogeneticrelationships between Taiwan and other different biogeographical regions by acombination of published molecular characteristics. We will also investigate the geneticdifferentiation, dispersal and evolutionary origin of adelgids. The study of the secondyear will target on the higher-hierarchy phylogeny of the aphids, based on multiple genecharacters to resolve subfamilial and tribal issues, and the establishment of barcodingdatabase of aphids. In the third year, we will combine Buchnera 16S rDNA to resolvelower-hierarchy phylogeny of the aphids such as genus level below, andphylogeography. In addition, we will also compare the coevolution between aphid andits symbiont Buchnera using their phylogenetic trees.

台灣加入世界貿易組織 (WTO) 後,面臨被外國害蟲侵入的風險不斷增加,發展一個可靠有效率的檢疫系統勢在必行。然而過去研究指出,現今許多蚜蟲仍持續不斷分化中,加上單一作物相增加及全球暖化等環境變遷,對蚜蟲種化演化的影響甚鉅。一個可信賴的系統發生工具樹,可將具爭議的生物議題、綜合害蟲管理 (IPM) 等,進一步與演化資訊結合,有助於訂定經濟或檢疫害蟲防治策略的決策標準。目前台灣已知蚜蟲有319種,涵蓋了所有蚜蟲之球蚜科 (Adelgidae)、根瘤蚜科 (Phylloxeridae) 及常蚜科 (Aphididae) 的9/11個亞科 (採用Blackman andEastop (1994) 的分類系統)。台灣的蚜蟲物種不但高多樣性,且涵蓋的分類階層廣泛,可作為探討蚜蟲演化關係的模式分類群,來進行系統發生分析以釐清不同分類階層的親緣關係。由於蚜蟲具有複雜多型態生活史,同種個體間外部形態變異程度大(如無翅/有翅及無性/有性世代之多態型)、不同種個體間外表型或體色相似,造成傳統分類上的爭議,進而促使分子系統學之發展。因此,本計劃擬以三年的時間,利用分子生物技術為台灣地區的蚜蟲種類建立出可靠的基因條碼資料庫,除了蚜蟲本身的高保守基因,還以其初級共生菌Buchnera aphidicola 16S rDNA來探討蚜蟲與Buchnera的系統發生學及共同演化關係。第一年除了建立物種、地理資訊GPS座標及分子特徵資料庫外,還以台灣雲杉上球蚜為研究材料,我們結合已發表之分子特徵進行台灣及其他不同生物地理區的球蚜之系統發生比較,探討遺傳差異、遷移分布及演化起源。第二年著重在高階系統發生,以多基因共解析亞科與族級的系統發生,其中包括基因條碼資料庫之建立。第三年加入Buchnera之16S rDNA作為分子特徵,探討低階系統發生 (屬級以下) 及系統地理學,並分別比較內共生菌與蚜蟲的系統發生,探討兩者共演化關係。
其他識別: NSC99-2313-B005-017
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系

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