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Technical Development and Research Improvement in Biological Control of Plant Pests (II)
環保意識的抬頭與人類對食品安全的關注,使得農作物病蟲害的生物防治工作受到社會大眾的重視,因此,本計畫目的在於研發作物病蟲害生物防治策略,以便能有效在農業生態體系中推展應用.本計畫涵蓋有九個子計畫,它們個別的工作目標如下:即 (1) 由夏威夷引進銀葉粉蝨的天敵Encarsia pergandiella, E. hispida及E. mineoi,探討它們防蟲之功效與飼養、檢疫等工作; (2) 探討斑潛蠅發生生態,調查本土現有斑潛蠅之天敵種類及引進有效的寄生性天敵,作為生物防治之用; (3) 評估黑殭菌各菌株致病力與抗環境逆境;利用黑殭菌DNA多元性特定條帶作出DNA-probe,供田間生態及施用存活調查; (4) 探討大量飼育捕植蹣類天敵,建立捕植對卵孢子發芽、感染與傳播的影響;施用增產菌FG-1菌株與滅達樂,以期延緩病害發生與促進薑株生長; (6) 利用本地產蟲生線蟲(Steinernema abbasi),研發出適合台灣蔬菜害蟲之安全有效的生物防治技術; (7) 觀察飼育紅點唇瓢蟲之基本需求,評估其生物防治梨圓介殼蟲之潛力; (8) 利用生物分析法篩選具有抑制病原菌的作物殘渣與植體,並輔以HPLC或GC分析它們所含有的硫配糖體種類及分解產物,藉以瞭解各分解產物的殺菌與抑菌功效; (9) 針對本地種蟲生線蟲Steinernema abbasi對蔬菜主要害蟲如小菜蛾、白粉蝶、大菜螟及菜心螟蟲的致病力進行生物檢定與施用技術.
Biological control of plant pests has received considerable attention throughout the world, drawing momentum from the growing public concern regarding the widespread use of hazardous chemicals in pest control. In order to develop and apply biocontrol strategies in agriecosystem, the objectives of this project including nine sub-projects are (1) to import a whitefly parasitoids, Encarsia pergandiella, E. hispida and E. mineoi from Hawaii and study their efficacy on controlling the silver leaf whitefly; (2) to study the distribution, occurrence, seasonal abundance, population dynamics and damage of leafminers in southern area and test the basic biology, parasitic rates of introduced parasitoids; (3) to screen Metarhizium anisopliae strains having high entomopathogenicity, more resistant against UV light and the fungicides; to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of the tested green mascardine fungi by using electrophoretic fingerprinting; (4) to develop biocontrol technologies of the spider mites with their predaceous mites, which depends upon the availble mass rearing skills and their lowering costs determined by the design of artificial rearing arena and supplemental foods; (5) to study the ecology of ginger soft rotdisease including the transmission of the disease through seed ginger; the temperature effect on the oospore germination, infection and spreading. Also, to study the use of both metalaxyl and YIB (yield increasing bacteria) isolate Fg-1 to delay the disease development and increase the plant growth; (6) to investigate biological control of vegetable pests using the indigenous species, Steinernema abbasi, in safe and effective control measures; (7) to study the basic rearing requirement for Chilocorus kuwanae and to provide a preliminary assessment of its potential as a biological agent of the San Jose Scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus; (8) to determine the effect of volatile compound released from leaf and seed of Brassica species on the natural isothiocynate fumigant for integrated control of crop soilborne diseases; (9) to develop a vermiculite, formulation of Steinernema abbasi to control four vegetable pests, such as diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, cabbage pyralid and cabbage webworm.
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